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Cultural Anthropology Test #2
Terms in this set (38)
Anthropology is an invention of...
The Age of Exploration
-Prior to the 1500s, most European knowledge of the outside would came from returning
Marco Polo (traveled 1271-1295)
Byzantines fleeing the sack of Constantinople (1453)
trade with the east Asia through Arab, Genoese, and Venetian merchants
Prince Henry the Navigator discovers sub-Saharan Africa and its kingdoms (1434)
Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas(1492+)
->Bartolome de Las Casa (1474-1566)
->Charles V's Great Debate of 1550
-European settlers would come to live beside stone age communities
-2nd and 3rd were not successful
-4th never made it to the Holy Land
Our Culture is from...
Western Culture was...
1st to develop cultural anthropology
The 18th and 19th Centuries
-Industrial Revolution (c. 1750 England; c. 1820 US)
->Trade with Europe and wage labor, primarily on plantations and in mines, changed the way people lived
-Political revolutions and civil wars
-End of Divine Right Monarchies
-Focus on the common man
Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)
-Functionalist: needs; food, shelter, reproduction, establish means of living
-Britisher of Polish birth
-Considered the "Father of modern ethnography"
What did Malinowski do?
-Immersion in "the field"
-Mastery of the native language
-Establishing trust and rapport with informants
-Social practices support a society's structure and fill the needs of individuals (food, shelter, social ties, reproduction)
Franz Boas (1858-1942)
American of German birth
What did Boas do?
-Environment doesn't determine culture
-Cultures are the result of the specific histories of the people who share them
-Contemporary societies shouldn't be used to reconstruct past societies
American Ethnographers Studied
British and German Ethnographers Studied
Postmodern Ethnography, 1990s to Today
-Dialogue and Collaboration
-Looks to "key consultants" for speciality knowledge only a few in the culture would know
-Ethnographer is no longer the sole authoritarian voice
-No longer androcentrically biased
-Suspension of disbelief
-Includes accounts of working conditions and interactions
What does "Off the Verandah" mean?
-A big porch
-Work with people you are studying
-Not second hand research
-Live with them himself
How is Malinowski's approach to the study of cultures different from Boas'?
-Malinowski believed in social practices, personal interest, and building trust
-Boa believed in social activism
What was Malinowski's most important contribution to anthropology?
What characterized and permeated every aspect of the lives of the Trobriand Islanders?
When was it used?
-Fertilizer for everything to make it better
Malinowski became a staunch critic of __________ near the end of his life.
What were the important trade items among the Trobriand Islanders?
-Jewelry: items of exchange, not to buy, made with shells
Feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from rapid immersion in a new and different culture
Judging other cultures, their behaviors and beliefs, from the perspective of one's own culture. The idea that one's own culture is more beautiful, rational, or nearer to perfection than others.
-What seems logical, sensible, important, and reasonable to a person in one culture may seem irrational, stupid, and unimportant to an outsider.
-Feelings of apprehension, loneliness, and lack of confidence are common when visiting another culture.
-When people talk about cultures, they ten to describe the difference and not the similarities.
-Differences between cultures are generally seen as threatening and are described in negative terms.
-It requires experience as well as study to understand the many subtleties of another culture.
The Idea that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and values, in terms of the cultural whole, rather than according to the value of another culture. The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect.
The process through which culture is learned and transmitted across generations through observation, inquiry, and participation.
The process through which an immigrant abandons some or most of their culture in favor of the new one. Assimilation has occurred when an immigrant knows enough of the new culture to meet his or her basic needs. The host society, or dominant majority, must allow full assimilation to take place. Also, the racial/ethnic group must want to.
Borrowing elements of culture between two cultures, often in a dominant-subordinate relationship. EX: Europeans and Native Americans.
Creating an original device, process, or culture pattern. An invention should make possible what was previously impossible or difficult. EX: Television or religious ritual.
A new variation on an existing device, process, or cultural pattern that is subsequently accepted by other members of the society.
The spread of cultural elements from one culture to another through cultural contact.
The attempt by a group within society to force a redistribution of resources and power.
An attempt to overthrow an existing form of political organization and put another type of political structure in its place.
What academic position did Boas hold?
Cultural Anthropology Professor at Columbia University
How was Boa's approach to anthropology different from Malinowski?
History, kept tradition alive, witnessed first hand
Where did Boas do his most important fieldwork?
Canadian Arctic & Alaska Pacific NW
What did Boas conclude about the influence of the environment on culture?
Environment doesn't determine culture
What's important institution did Boas come to lead?
Curator of a museum in NY (Natural History)
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