Unit 10.3 Industrialization

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Terms in this set (...)

19th century
1800s
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) a Scottish economist who wrote The Wealth of Nations and who supported laissez faire policies and whose ideas support capitalism
Agricultural Revolution
(mid 1700s- 1800s) the transformation of agriculture from traditional medieval farming to more productive, efficient, and mechanical methods of farming through scientific innovation and new techniques
capitalism
an economic system in which land, factories, and other resources are owned by individuals instead of the government. In this system, the prices of things we buy are decided by the people who sell them and not by the government
cholera
an acute, often fatal, infectious disease that is marked by vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea
coal
a black or dark brown rock that burns easily when set on fire
Commodore Matthew Perry
(1794- 1858) a commodore in the United States navy who forced the Japanese to open their country to western merchants in 1853
communism
a system of government in which all factories, farms, and other valuable things are owned and controlled by the government
complex
consisting of many different and connected parts
difference
something that makes two or more things not alike
economic
related to the use a country or region's wealth and resources
efficient
operating well without much waste
enduring issue
a challenge or problem that has been debated or discussed across time
experience
live through, feel, or know
factory
a building or set of buildings where products are made by machines
famine
a great lack of food over a wide area
finished/manufactured good"
products that are ready to be sold to customers
Great Britain
the main island of the United Kingdom, located off the northwest coast of France and occupied by England, Scotland, and Wales; Great Britain
historical context
"
the events that led to an event; includes the time period and larger historical trends as well as causes"
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industrial
related to turning raw materials into manufactured goods
Industrial Revolution
the period in which the production of goods shifted from hand production methods to complex machines. This period of industrialization resulted in social and economic changes. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain around 1750. The process of industrialization spread throughout the world in the following centuries.
industrialization
the process of developing manufacturing on a large scale
innovation
a new method of addressing a problem
Irish Potato Famine
(1845-1849) a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland
James Watt
(1736 - 1819) was a Scottish inventor and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine provided much of the force behind the Industrial Revolution
Karl Marx
(1818-1883) a German political philosopher and economist who founded modern socialism and wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels
laborer
someone who works
manufacture
the process of making a large number of something
manufacturing
the process of making a large number of something
mechanization
the process of making something more mechanical or automatic by introducing machines
Meiji Restoration
(1868-1912) a period of industrialization and modernization in Japan in reaction to European imperialism that to Japan's imperial period
merchant
a person who is involved in trade
middle class
a social group between the upper class and working class, usually made up of professional and business workers and their families
mining
the act or business of digging up coal, ore, or other minerals in a mine
natural resource
materials the occur in nature and can be used for economic gain (to make money) like forests, water, fertile land, oil, or coal
parliament
a part of a government that makes laws; the legislative branch of government; referred to as Parliament in Great Britain and many other countries, but can have different names like Congress in the United States of America
point of view
an opinion; a claim
population
the number of people in a particular area
raw material
an item (usually a natural resource) used to create manufactured goods
reform (v.)
to make changes in something to improve it
reform (n.)
the action or process of changing something
reliable
the useful and accurate for a given purpose
similarity
something that one or more things have in common
social
having to do with society, people living together in large groups
social class
groupings of people in a society usually based on wealth, religion, ethnicity, or other factors
socialism
a theory of government in which the whole community rather than individuals owns all of its property and resources
steam engine
a machine that heats water, then uses resulting steam to move machinery. Though other invented the steam engine, James Watt's version of it was popular during the Industrial Revolution.
suffrage
the right to vote
surplus
an amount that goes beyond what is needed
textile
cloth, or woven fabric
urban
having to do with a city
urbanization
the process of making an area more city-like
working class
a social group lower than the middle class, usually made up of people who earned a living through manual labor and earned a low age