48 terms

Review for Science Final

STUDY
PLAY
Stages of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
(Please Make Another Turkey)
~ process all cells go through except egg and sperm cells.
Chlorophyll
The part of a plant cell that gives a plant its green color. It is found in chloroplasts.
Budding
A type of Asexual Reproduction through cell division. A new organism is growing from the body of a parent organism and breaks away when it is too large. Example- Hydra
Regeneration
Regrows body parts when the organism's parts become damaged or lost. Example - Starfish
Binary Fission
The way bacteria reproduces. It continually splits in two. Example - Bacteria
Three Kinds of Asexual Reproduction
1. Budding
2. Regeneration
3. Binary Fission
Sexual Reproduction
A type of reproduction in which two cells, an egg and sperm cell join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
Nucleus
The part of the cell that directs all cell activities and contains hereditary material made of proteins and DNA.
Mitochondria
Cell organelle that breaks down food and releases energy.
Organ
A large body part, such as the heart, made up of different types of tissue that all work together.
Organelle
Structure in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that can act as a storage site, process energy, move materials, or manufacture substances.
Biogenesis
The theory that living things come only from other living things.
Double Helix
Shape of DNA ~ DNA chain of hereditary genes. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Scientific Method
Procedures used to solve problems and answer questions.
Steps of the Scientific Method
(Some Guy From Paris Ate Donuts)
State the Problem
Gather Information
Form a Hypothesis
Perform an Experiment
Analyze Data
Draw Conclusions
Homeostasis
Balance = Same.
Regulation of an organism's internal (inside) life maintaining conditions.
Variable
Something in an experiment that can change.
Homologous - Base word means, "Same".
Body parts that are similar in structure and origin and can be similar in function.
Primates
Group of mammals including humans, monkeys, and apes that share characteristics such as opposable thumbs, binocular vision, and flexible shoulders. (We are related to monkeys and apes!)
Punctuated Equilibrium
FAST EVOLUTION! The model describing the rapid evolution that occurs when mutations of a few genes results in a species suddenly changing into a new species.
Mitosis
Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps. (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase)
Ribosome
Small structures in cells that make their own proteins.
Lamarck's Theory of Acquired Characteristics
Theory that suggested that characteristics, or traits developed during a parent organisms lifetime are inherited by its offspring. Example- Muscles and/or scars would be passed on.
Relative Dating
The relative age of something is its age in comparison to the ages of other things. Geologists determine the relative ages of rocks by examining their places in a sequence. The relative age tells if the layer of rock is older or younger than the other layers of rock above it or below it.
Gradualism
Slow evolution of changes over time! A slow process by which one species changes into a new species through a continuing series mutations and variations.
Natural Selection
Biggest, fastest, and smartest survive! A process by which organisms with traits best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Embryology
Study of embryos and their development.
Embryo
A fertilized egg - a zygote.
SI Units
International System of Units. Ex. millimeters, centimeters, meters, kilometers, grams, kilograms, tonne, milliliter, liter
5 Things Living Things Do
1. Organized
2. Respond
3. Use energy
4. Grow and Develop
5. Reproduce
Chloroplast
Green, chlorphyll-containing, plant cell organelle that uses light energy to produce sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
Evolution
The change in inherited characteristics over time.
Hypothesis
A prediction that can be tested.
Punnett Square
A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.
Meiosis
Sex cells and sperm cells! Reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organism.
Heredity
The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Alleles
An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait. It can be dominant or recessive.
Diploid
All body cells except for sperm and egg cells. "Di" = double chromosomes XX or XY
Haploid
"Hap" = Half the number of chromosomes.
Mutations
Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell.
Geologic Time Scale
Division of Earth's history into time units based largely on types of life-forms that lived only during certain periods.
Cyanobacteria
Chlorophyll-containing photosynthetic bacterial thought to be one of Earth's earliest lifeforms.
Era
Second-longest division of geologic time. It is divided into periods and is based on major worldwide changes in types of fossils.
Homo sapiens sapiens
It means wise humans
Virus cells
Needs a host cells to multiply. It injects its hereditary material into the host cell and when the virus multiplies, the host cell is destroyed.
Things our cells can do alone.
Cells undergo mitosis. They reproduce alone. They reproduce asexually.
Ways our cells work together.
Cells work together to create tissues, organs, and organ systems. CTOOS
Tissues work together to form organs to help our body work.
Organs work together to form organ systems.
What all living things need to survive
Food, water, shelter and sunlight to survive.