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BIO 120 Chapter 9
Terms in this set (83)
Energy enters an ecosystem as _______ or _________ energy
light or solar
Some energy in cellular respiration is ________
converted to heat energy or used to make organic molecules in photosynthesis
Organic molecules are converted to __________ by cellular respiration
The inner membrane of mitochondria is folded what is its function?
divides mitochondrion into 2 compartments the inter-membrane space and mitochondrial matrix
In the mitochondria DNA=mDNA which codes for what?
the production of enzymes
What do ribosomes produce?
What catalyze reactions of cellular respiration
What forms of respiration does not use oxygen to breakdown organic molecules?
fermentation (does not use ETC)
anaerobic respiration (uses ETC)
All forms of life carry out some form of ___________
What is the most efficient and commonly used catabolic pathway?
What is the most commonly used substrate in aerobic respiration
During aerobic respiration _______ is consumed
What facilitates the reactions of aerobic respiration
Does oxygen have to be present for glycolysis to occur?
What is responsible for most of the ATP production?
Glycolysis releases less than ________% of energy stored in glucose
Glycolysis produces what?
_________ precedes all forms of respiration
What 3 metabolic stages are completed in aerobic respiration
pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle
Gylcolysis occur in the ______
cytosol (produces ATP)
What is required for aerobic respiration to occur
glycolysis (not actually part of aerobic respiration)
Where does pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle occur?
What happens in pyruvate oxidation?
pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle and produces ATP, NADH, and FADH2
What happens in oxidative phosphorylation?
the electron transport chain accepts electrons from NADH and FADH2
How do electrons pass through the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation?
In glycolysis glucose is oxidized into _______
In the first half of glycolysis 2 ATP are used to phosphorylate _____________
What is produced in the 1st half of glycolysis
2 different carbon sugars and G3P and isomers of G3P
In glycolysis energy is produced as 2 G3P converted to ____________
During pyruvate oxidation what is given off?
If ________ is present in pyruvate oxidation 2 pyruvate are actively transported and enters the mitochondria in eukarotic cells
Electrons transfered from pyruvate into NAD+ into ________
Redox reactions produce electron carriers ______ & _______
FADH2 and NADH
For each acetyl Co A molecule you have
1 GTP ---> 1 ATP
((for 1 pyruvate, it makes 2))
Most of the ATP produced by aerobic respiration results from ______________
In the electron transport chain what is used to set up the hydrogen gradient used in chemiosmosis?
The __________ does not directly produced ATP
electron transport chain
As electrons are transferred from 1 compound to another small amounts of ________ are released
The electron transport chain is a collection of molecules that are embedded in the _____________ of mitochondrion
What produces multiple copies of ATP synthase in the inner membrane?
______________ phosphoralates ADP +Pi ---> ATP
Where do all the hydrogen ions that drive ATP synthesis in aerobic respiration come from?
energy released in redox reactions of the electron transport chain that actively transports hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the inter membrane space
What move down the concentration gradient through ATP synthase to mitochondrial matrix to ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport and chemiosmosis produce how many ATP?
What is the maximum number of ATP produced per glucose?
In alcohol fermentation fermentation converts pyruvate to __________ and regenerates the electron acceptor NAD+ by using _______ as the final electron acceptor
In lactic acid fermentation fermentation converts pyruvate to __________ and regenerates the electron acceptor NAD+ by using _______ as the final electron acceptor
What happens to a glucose molecule when it loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction?
the glucose molecule is oxidized
Which of the summary statements below describes the results of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
Which of the following statements about NAD+ is true?
NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in which of the following processes or events?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
A cell has enough available ATP to meet its needs for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or her ATP supply?
catabolic processes are activated that generate more ATP
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
A glucose molecule is completely broken down to carbon dioxide and water in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but together these two processes yield only a few molecules of ATP. What happened to most of the energy that the cell obtains from the oxidation of glucose?
It is stored in NADH and FADH2
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?
The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.
During which of the following metabolic processes is most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose is released?
the citric acid cycle
Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the carbon skeleton of glucose has been broken down to CO2 with some net gain of ATP. Most of the energy from the original glucose molecule at that point in the process, however, is stored in the form of which of the following molecules?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
Which one of the following is formed by the removal of a carbon (as CO2) from a molecule of pyruvate?
In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, (2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and (3) is bonded to coenzyme A. Which of the following sets of products result from these reactions?
acetyl CoA, NADH, and CO2
The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?
Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?
the harnessing of energy from high-energy electrons derived from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
Which of the following processes is driven by chemiosmosis?
Which of the following statements best describes the primary role played by oxygen in cellular respiration?
It serves as the final acceptor for electrons from the electron transport chain.
During aerobic respiration, which of the following molecules directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level?
In chemiosmosis, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP +Pi to ATP?
energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, down their electrochemical gradient
Water is one of the end products of aerobic respiration. What is the source of the oxygen atom used in formation of the water?
molecular oxygen (O2)
Which of the following metabolic processes take place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
Which of the following statements describes a primary function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation?
oxidation of NADH to NAD+
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient.
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
the pH of the matrix increases
During what cycle are ATP and NADPH used to covert CO2 to the sugar G3P and the reactions take place in the stroma
What type of light does photosynthesis use?
The purpose of the photo-chemical reactions (light-dependent reactions) is:
to produce oxygen and chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
What releases energy used to make ATP in the process of Chemiosmosis
What produces ATP and the products can be used for transport of materials and movement
What does not use the electron transport chain and the final electron acceptor is not oxygen?
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