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VET 221 Urinalysis
Terms in this set (56)
What is specific gravity?
density of a liquid compared with that of distilled water
What is the S.G. for cats?
What is the S.G. for dogs?
An increased S.G. could indicate what?
-decreased water intake
-ARF (acute renal failure)
A decreased S.G. could indicate what?
-increased water intake
- CRF (chronic renal failure)
- Cushings Dz
- Diabetes insipidus
- renal Dz
What is the typical daily urine output for dogs?
What is the typical daily urine output for cats?
number of particle in a sample of urine
What causes alkaline urine (>7pH)?
- loss of CO2
- urease-producing bacteria
- respiratory or metabolic alkalosis
- vegetable diet
What causes acidic urine (<7pH)?
- renal failure
- high protein diet
- excessive exercise
What is the normal reading for protein in urine?
none or trace
False positive is common with protein in what type of urine?
What can cause proteinuria?
-pre and post renal causes
- muscle exertion
- after parturition
True or false: normal urine should not contain glucose?
What are some causes for glucosuria?
- Diabetes mellitus
- insulin deficiency
- liver Dz
What are ketones?
by-products of breakdown of body fats- source of energy
Ketonuria could indicate?
- ketosis (bovine)
- decreased carbohydrate intake
- pregnancy toxemia (ewes)
Bilirubinuria could indicate?
- biliary obstruction
- liver Dz/infection
- hemolytic anemia
What is "Monday Morning Sickness"?
myoglobinuria (myoglobin in the urine)- occurs in working horses following a day's rest on sunday. Cramping of muscles occur causing stiffness and pain
Sulfosalicylic Acid test (SA test) is used to confirm what?
Leukocyte reading of >5/HPF indicates what?
- infection (UTI)
- inflammatory Dz
What are causes for hematuria?
What is the largest cell found in urine?
squamous epithelial cell
A reading of transitional epithelial cells >0-1/HPF indicates what?
A reading of renal epithelial cells >0-1/HPF indicates what?
-renal tubular disease
- acute infections
What are casts?
composed of matrix of protein from plasma and mucoprotein secreted by tubules
Hyline casts more than 0-1/HPF indicates what?
- renal irritation
- mild renal Dz
Granular casts more than 0-1/HPF indicates what?
- acute nephritis
- severe renal Dz
- ARF or CRF
- CHF (congestive heart failure)
- normal in horses from lots of exercise
Renal epithelial casts are rare and indicate what?
- renal tubular degeneration
What is the significance of RBC casts?
always pathological with kidney involvement
- bleeding disorder
Waxy casts indicate what?
- SEVERE tubular degeneration
- nephron destruction
What is the Ureter?
carries urine to the bladder
What is the urethra?
carries urine to outside the body
Why are males more prone to urinary obstruction?
males have longer and more narrow urethra
Clinical signs of renal failure are not visible until what percentage of the nephron function is lost?
What are some causes for ARF?
toxicity, pesticides, ethylene glycol, NSAIDS, etc..
What increased bloodwork value indicates ARF?
BUN and Creatinine
If a patient ever presents with ARF and Liver failure, treat the patient as suspect of what disease?
What are clinical signs of CRF?
V/D, anorexia, dehydration, anemia, lethargy
What diagnostics would you see with CRF?
azotemia, hyperkalemia, and low S.G., increased BUN and creatinine, increased phosphorus levels with anemia
What is the treatment for CRF?
blood transfusion, fluid therapy, K/D diet, antiemitics
What is the treatment for ARF?
fluid therapy, treat toxin, supportive care
What are uroliths?
bladder stones that form within the bladder and cause an obstruction
Why are dalmations prone to uroliths?
they can't metabolize uric acid because they don't create enough enzymes
What crystals are most common in dogs?
triple phosphate (struvite)
What crystals are most common in cats?
calcium oxalate dihydrate
When is the best time to collect urine?
What type of container should urine be collected in?
clean, opaque, and sterile
Urinalysis should be done within what time after collection?
30 min- 1 hour
how can refrigeration affect urine?
falsely elevate crystal content
At room temperature, bacteria and pH will...
at room temp, glucose, RBC's, bilirubin, and casts will...
What should be included on a urine sample label?
patients info, name, age, sex, time collected, method of collection
What collection method is preferred for culture and sensitivity?
Manual expression of the bladder can cause an increase in...
RBC's and WBC's
What crystal is seen due to metabolic defects?
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