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Anatomy exam

same as kristen's with definitions and terms switched
STUDY
PLAY
Epiphyses
What term refers to the ends of a long bone?
Osteoblasts
What are bone building cells called?
Osteoclasts
What are bone-resorbing or destroying cells?
26
How many bones are in the adult vertebral column?
Scoliosis
What is an abnormal side-to-side curve in the vertebral column?
ball-and-socket
Which joints permit the widest range of movement?
open
What is another name for a compound fracture?
Long
What type of bone is the humerus?
Thoracic
What is the region of the vertebral column that contains the largest number of bones?
Femur
What is the longest bone of the body?
Mineral storage, blood formation, protection
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
long, short, flat, irregular
What are the four major categories of bone?
true ribs
What are ribs called that attach directly to the sternum by means of cartilage?
2
How many pairs of floating ribs are there?
2
Hinge joints allow motion in how many directions?
Pivot
When you turn your head, you are using what kind of joint?
hematopoiesis
The process of blood cell formation is known as what?
206
How many total bones are in the body?
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
What are the 5 regions of the spine?
Striated/skeletal
What is another name for a voluntary muscle?
Biceps brachii
What is the prime mover in the bending of the elbow?
Triceps brachii
What is the prime mover in the extending of the elbow?
Antagonist
What are the triceps brachii and the biceps brachii considered to be to each other?
extension
What is the movement that is the opposite of flexion?
contraction and shortening
What do all muscles specialize in?
Attachment to a more stationary bone
What is the origin of a muscle?
attachment to a more moveable bone
What is the insertion of a muscle?
movement, maintaining posture, producing heat for the body
What are the primary functions of the muscular system?
abduction
What is moving a body part away from the midline on the body?
Oxygen debt
The continued heavy breathing after strenuous exercise is an attempt by the body to "repay" the what?
Twitch
What is a quick jerky responce of a given muscle to a single stimulus called?
decrease it
What does muscle atrophy do to the size of a muscle?
Visceral muscle
What is another name for smooth muscle?
Voluntary muscle
What is another term for skeletal muscle?
Biceps brachii
What is the muscle on the front of the arm that is responsible for flexion?
Pectoralis major
What is the large fan shaped muscle that covers the upper chest?
Triceps brachii
What is the muscle on the back of the upper arm that is responsible for elbow extension?
Intercostal muscles
What are muscles that are located between the ribs?
Quadriceps
What is the group of muscles that make up the front of the thigh?
peripheral
Which nervous system is the eye considered to be part of?
dendritesl
What carries nerve impulses toward the cell body?
highly
Dendrites are usually highly or lowly branched?
afferent neurons
What are sensory neurons also called?
efferent neurons
What are motor neurons also called?
Interneurons
What is another name for connecting neurons?
Epineurium
What is the outermost covering of the nerve?
Medulla Oblongata
Where are the vital centers located?
Midbrain
What is the most superior part of the brainstem?
Spinal cord
What is the main reflex center of the central nervous system?
Hypothalamus
What structure is part of the central nervous system but also produces hormones for the endocrine system?
cerebellum
What lies just below the occipital lobe of the cerebrum and is responsible for muscle coordination?
Thalamus
What is the brain structure that associates sensations with emotions?
medulla oblongata
Part of the brainstem that contains that "vital centers."
cerebrum
What is the largest and uppermost part of the brain?
thyroid
What endocrine organ increases metabolism and increases blood calcium?
Ovaries
What endocrine organ produces estrogen and results in development of female characteristics?
parathyroid
What endocrine organ increases blood calcium concentration?
pituitary
What endocrine organ stimulates growth and is sometimes refered to as the master gland?
Pineal
What endocrine organ is the responsible for the body's internal clock?
Hypothalamus
What endocrine organ controls body temperature, appetite, thirst, and overall homeostasis?
Testes
What endocrine organ produces testosterone and results in the development of male characteristics?
Pancreatic islets
What endocrine organ increases blood glucose level and decreases blood glucose with insulin and basically controls glucose levels in the body?
thymus
What endocrine organ is responsible for functions of the immune system?
Adrenals
What endocrine organ maintains anti-inflammatory effect and controls stress responses?
Anterior Pituitary
Which endocrine organ is responsible for gigantism?
Thyroid
Which endocrine organ is responsible for the secretion of calcitonin?
Hypothalamus
Which endocrine organ is responsible for inhibiting hormones?
Adrenals
Which endocrine organ is responsible for body's resistance to stress?
Anterior pituitary
Which endocrine organ is responsible for secretion of hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to grow and secrete?
a particular hormone
What do target organ cells respond to?
Ductless
Are endocrine glands ductless or do they secrete into ducts?
Sphenoid
what is the location of the pituitary gland?
serum
What is plasma without clotting factors?
hemoglobin
What carries the oxygen through the blood and gives blood its red pigment?
O negative
What type of blood is the universal donor?
AB negative
What blood type is the universal recipient?
Thrombus
What is stationary clotting?
embolism
What is a clot that is no longer stationary?
Transportation of gases, nutrients
What is the primary function of blood?
4-6
How many pints of blood does the average adult have in the body?
Rhesus Monkey
What animal helped scientists discover the Rh factor in blood?
80-120 days
What is the average life of a red blood cell?
White blood cells, Red blood cells, platelets
What are the three formed elements found in whole blood?
Slightly alkaline
Blood is normally slightly acidic or slightly alkaline?
Antigen
What is a substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies?
Gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract)
what is another name for the alimentary canal?
Digestion, absorption, metabolism
Food undergoes what 3 kinds of processing in the body?
Exocrine
The liver is what kind of gland?
stomach
Where does protein digestion begin?
proteins
the enzyme pepsin is primarily concerned with the digestion of what?
Amino acids
What are the "building blocks" of protein molecules?
Incisors, canines, molars, premolars
What are the 4 major types of teeth found in the human mouth?
touching the diaphragm; left
The apex of the heart lies_________, pointing toward the ________ lung.
bicuspid (mitral) valve
What valve is between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
tricuspid
What valve is between the right atrium and the right ventricle?
Right atrium
Blood passing through the tricuspid valve has just left which chamber?
left atrium
Blood returning from the lung enters which heart chamber?
Trachea
What is the windpipe properly referred to as?
Pleura
What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage?
Breathing (pulmonary ventilation)
What is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs?
expiration
What is taking place when the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles relax?
1 pint
How much air does a person ordinarily take in with each breath?
hemoglobin
What is most oxygen that is transported in the body bound to?
inspiration
Elevation of the ribs, contraction of the diaphragm, and elongation of the chest cavity from top to bottom occur during what process?
Air distributor
the function of the respiratory system is?
pharynx
upper respiratory tract
air distributor and gas exchanger
The organs of the repiratory system serve as what?
filters, warms, and humidifies
the respiratory system does what to the air taken in?
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
What are the major organs of the respiratory system?
alveoli
The respiratory system ends in million of tiny, thin-walled sacs called what?
pharynx
organ of the digestive and respiratory systems; more commonly called the throat
larynx
the voice box located just below the pharynx; commonly known as the Adam's apple
trachea
the windpipe; the tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi
bronchi
the branches of the trachea
bronchioles
small branches of a bronchus
alveoli
small cavity; they are microscopic scalike dilations of terminal bronchioles
diffusion
spreading; for example, scattering of dissolved paricles
respiratory muscosa
mucus-covered membrane that lines the tubes of the respiratory tree
respiratory membrane
the single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the alveoli
pleura
the serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
inspiration
what is the process of moving air into the lungs; opposite of exhalation and also referred to as inhalation?
expiration
what is the process of moving air out of the lungs; opposite of inhalation or inspiration and also referred to as exhalation?
diffusion
how is gas exchanged between the lungs and blood, and the blood and tissues?
cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems
What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
numerous organs
sympathetic stimulation usually results in a response of what?
diaphysis
What term refers to the shaft of a long bone?
Humerus, ulna, and raduis
Which bones make up the arm?
adduction
What term means movement towards the body?
They don't have a nucleus
Why are red blood cells' life spans so short?
albumins, globulins, fibrinogens, and prothrombins
What are the 4 important proteins in the plasma portion of whole blood?
Mechanical
The churning of food in the stomach is an example of the ____________ breakdown of food
Chemical
__________ breakdown occurs when digestive enzymes act on food as it passes through the digestive tract
Mouth, stomach, cecum, esophagus, rectum, and pharynx
The main organs of the digestive system are what?