Terms in this set (80)
Approximate efficiency of the conversion of light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis:
Approx. percentage of electrical energy-conversion converted to heat in the average incandescent lightbulb:
The max. efficiency possible in an energy-conversion process that is not limited by the second law of thermodynamics:
The rapid rate of this process in tropical forests results in low nutrient soils:
The process in which glucose is synthesized by plants:
The most abundant element in earth's CRUST
The most abundant element in Earth's ATMOSPHERE:
The most abundant element in Earth's CORE:
The element commercially extracted from bauxite
Most often cited as the causative factor for acid deposition
Implicated in human neurological damage
Considered harmful in the troposphere but beneficial in the stratosphere
Is the major pollutant that electrostatic precipitators are designed to remove from power-plant smokestack emissions
Country with the largest area of boreal forests:
Country with the largest area of temperate deciduous forests
The factor that likely poses the greatest threat of extinction of species is
increasing loss of habitat
Which of the following energy sources is not derived directly or indriectly from solar energy?
Which of the following best exemplifies global collaboration for a sustainable envirnment?
The montreal protocal
Which of the following is an effective alternative to chlorine for disinfecting wastewater in a municipal treatment plant?
The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in a sample of river water suggests which of the following?
The water is contaminated with animal waste
Which of the following best helps to explain why phosphorus is often a limiting factor in many ecosystems?
Under many conditions, phosphorus forms stable insoluble compounds
Factors contributing to the rise in world hunger include all of the following except
increasing consumption of vegetable protein in place of meat protein
In a city of pop. 10,000 experiences 100 births, 40 deaths, 10 immigrants, and 30 emigrants in the course of a year, what is the net annual percentage growth rate?
Which of the following statements about genetic diversity is true?
Genetic resistance to pests and diseases can be increased by crossing a crop plant with ancestral varieties
In the US, most municipal solid waste is disposed of by
Negative environmental impacts associated with large scale hydroelectric projects have been demonstrated in which of the following areas?
James Bay Quebec
A country with an age distribution like that shown on the figure above, is most likely a country that
is exprienceing slow or no pop. growth
Which of the following factors is fundamentally responsible for seasons on earth
The tilt of earth's axis of rotation
If wastewater treatment plant effluent that contains nitrates and phosphates is allowed to flow into a body of water, which of the following may result?
Which of the following describes a fundamental characteristic of the green revolution in food resources?
The development of new strains of crops with higher yields
An industry uses natural gas for manufacturing and uses the waste heat to produce electricity. This is an example of which of the following processes?
The water-holding capacity of soil is LEAST likely to be affected by the addition of which of the following?
Critics of incineration of municipal solid waste that it may NOT be the best solution for the future, for which of the following reasons?
Incineration contributes to air pollution
Which of the following is likely to minimize soil erosion?
A state highway was constructed over wetlands. The state obtained a permit to fill the existing wetlands in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act of 19721, and agreed to create another wetland. This trade-off approach to addressing an environmental issue is known as
Info gathered by a scientist about the toxicity of chemical X and chemical Y showed that they had individual safe limits for fish at particular concentrations. But when they were used together at the safe concentrations, there were extensive fish kills. This is an example of
The polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they recieve from the Sun in the course of a year. However, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year primarily by the
transport of heat thru the atmosphere and oceans
An advantage of recycling aluminum rather than disposing of it in landfills is that aluminum can be
produced from recycled metal using much less energy than is required for its production from aluminum ore
As urbanization increases and natural soil surfaces are covered, the groundwater supply is reduced due to
loss of recharge area
Teh current global human population is about 6.1 bill and is growing at an annual rate of 1.35 percent. If world pop. were to grow at this rate for the next yr, approximately how many people would be added?
8 x 10 to the 7
The data in the graph can be useful in explaining the greenhouse effect when they are compared with
mean global temperatures
The annual fluctuation in carbon dioxide concentration can be best explaned by the
seasonal photosynthetic activity of green plants
Integrated waste managment employs all of the following except
using disposable diapers rather than cloth diapers
Economic benefits of building large dams include which of the following?
I and III only
Which of the following statements is best supported by the data?
There is a positive correlation between breast cancer and dietary fat intake
US residents are how many times more likely to die from breast cancer than the residents of Hungary?
Of the following sources, which supplies the most commerical energy in the world today?
Which of the following is a greenhouse gas that is also a by-product of anaerobic respiaration?
If the pop. of a country grows at a rate of approx 5 percent per year, the number of years required for the pop. to double is closest to
The major cause for the decline in the worldwide catch of fish since 1990 is
Which of the following will occur if the trend of global temperature increase continues?
The troposphere will contain more water vapor
Which of the following is the primary environmental problem associated with the use of nuclear poewr to generate electricity?
Disposal of radioactive waste
Compared to a coal-fired powerplant that produces the same amount of energy, a nuclear-fired powerplant generates more
The chart above compares the daily water use per person to the price of water in selected countries. Which of the following conclusions can be correctly drawn using only the data in the chart?
Increased water use is generally correlated with the lower water prices
Which of the following identifies two factors thought to be the MOST HARMFUL to biodiversity?
Destruction of habitat and invasion of nonnative species
For a certain insecticide, the LD-50 dosage level for rats is determined to be 250 milligrams per kilogram of body mass. On the basis of this info, which of the following is the best prediction regarding the consequences of recieving this dosage of the insecticide?
Five hundred out of every one thousand rats would die
The major human health problem related to radon accumulation is
Why do introduced species often become pests?
They displace native species
Acid rain is associated with which of the following?
The burning of fossil fuels
Characteristics that tend to INCREASE the risk of species becoming endangered include which of the following?
I, III, and III
STratospheric ozone depletion is most likely to result in which of the following?
Disruption of photosynthesis in plants
Which of the following is a process that indirectly removes carbon from Earth's atmosphere?
Formation of carbonate deposits
Which of the following is the best explanation of the fact that agricultural production on floodplains is often relatively high?
On floodplains, soils tend to be nutrient rich and fertile
The increase in the size of EArth's human pop. in the last century has been dramatic. Which of the following identifies two major contrubiters to this increase?
The Industrial Revolution and modern medicine
Many scientists maintain that a rise in sea level has occured in the last 100 years as a result of global warming. If this is true, which of the following factors best explains such a rise?
Thermal expansion of the ocean
Which of the following natural events would be most likely to contribute to the cooling of EArth's atmosphere?
At the current rate of growth, Earth's human population will double in about 50 yrs. which of the following is the LEAST viable strategy for ensuring adequate nutrition for a population this size?
Doubling the area of arable land on a global basis
The combustion of one gallon of car fuel produces about 5 lbs of carbon (in CO2). (cont.......)
Which of he following best describes the significance of the UN Conference on the Human Environment, which was held in 1972 in Stockholm?
The conference provided on the first global forum for dialogue on environmental probems
Regulations that deal directly with the disposal of hazardous materials in the US include which of the following?
Which of the following is a true statement about replacement-level fertility?
It is greater in countries with high infant mortality rates than in countries with low-infant mortality rates
Which of the following best illustrates the conclusion (?) of the tragedy of the commons?
depletion of an aquifer by regional farmers
Of the following, which is the best example of reclamation of disturbed lands?
Restoring vegetation to an area that has been mined.
If the annual consumption of petroleum in the US is about 23 barrels per capita, the total annual consumption of petroleum in the US is closest to
6 billion barrels
One solution for reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide would be to
decrease the use of fossil fuels
Which of the following is the usual cause of cultural eutrophication in surface waters of both developed and developing countries?
Runoff of nitrate compounds into bodies of water
IF mean global temperature keeps on increasing as predicted by contemporary scientists, which of the following is most likely?
Specialists living in fragile ecosystems will risk extinctions.
Photosynthesis is the major source of which of the following gases in Earth's atmosphere?
Traveling southward from the arctic regions of Canada to the tropics of Panama, one passes thru several biomes- tundra, coniferous forest, temp. decidious forest, and tropical rain forest. This pattern of change in vegetation is primarily the result of
An increase in both mean annual temp. and mean annual precipitation
Which statement best describes the approx. global distribution of coal supplies?
The US, the former Soviet Union, and China together contain 50% of proven reserves.