Earth Environmental Science Exam
Terms in this set (111)
Place where two of Earth's tectonic plates are moving apart.
Point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of a earthquake.
Measure of the energy released during an earthquake, which can be described using the Richter scale.
Crack in Earth's crust that occurs when stress is applied.
Sea floor Spreading
Hess's theory that new ocean crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges and destroyed at deep-sea tranches; occurs on a continuos cycle of magma intrusion and spreading.
Waves of energy that travel through the core of the Earth.
Earth's rigid outer shell, including the crust and the solid,uppermost part of the mantle.
A shaking or trembling of a portion of the Earth caused by movement of rocks or volcanic shakes.
Place where two tectonic plates move past each other.
Point of the initial fault rupture where an earthquake originates that usually lies at least several kilometers beneath Earth's surface.
Solid particles deposited on Earth's surface that can form Sedimentary rocks by processes such as weathering, erosion, deposition, and lithification.
Occurs when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water; final stage of the erosional process in which the movement of transported materials and they are dropped in another location.
Transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance.
A vent in the Earth's crust from which molten or hot rock and steam occur.
The process of adding cities; growth of cities.
The science of producing crops, and raising livestock.
The process by which rocks and minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions.
The process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces.
Metamorphic rock such as schist or gneiss, whose minerals are squeezed under high pressure and arranged in wavy layers and bands.
Molten material found beneath Earth's crust that forms minerals with large crystals when it cools slowly and forms minerals with small crystals when it cools rapidly.
Place where two of Earth's tectonic plates are moving toward each other; is associated with trenches, island arcs, and folded mountains.
P and S Waves
Seismic wave that squeezes and pulls rocks in the same direction that the wave travels, causing rock particles to move back and forth.
Long ridge of sand or other sediment deposited or shaped by long-shore currents that is separated from the mainland and can be up to tens of kilometers long.
Movement of weathered materials from one location to another by agents such as water, wind, glaciers, and gravity.
Removal of trees from a forested area without replacement, often using clear-cutting tools, which may result in loss of topsoil and water pollution.
Horizontal layering in sedimentary rock that can range from a millimeter thick to several meters thick.
Magma that flows onto Earth's surface.
Ability of an air mass to resist rising.
Soften in force or severity; lessen the impact or intensity of
To decrease seriously or exhaust the abundance or supply of
The act of combining parts or elements to form a whole.
A large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat.
Harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms.
Of or relating to production of electricity by water power.
To be able to support.
Living things. Such as, humans, dogs, cats, plants, etc.
The place or type of site where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives or grows.
non-living things. Such as rocks, water, etc.
Number of organisms that a specific environment can support.
Process in which heavy atomic nuclei split into smaller, lighter nuclei.
Diversity of plants and animals in a ecosystem. Is important in order for a strong ecosystem.
All of Earth's organisms and the environment which they live.
Heat from the Earth. Resources of the energy can be found from the shallow ground, hot water, and hot rock below the Earth's surface.
An organism or plant introduced into a new environment, where it is not native.
Obstacles that limit the growth. Helps stop overpopulation of a species.
Any precipitation with a pH of less then 5.0 that forms when sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid and nitric acid.
Current state of the atmosphere; including short-term variations such as temperature and precipitation.
Removal of trees from a forested without accurate replacement.
Boundary between two air masses of differing densities; can be cold, warm, stationary, or occluded and can stretch over large areas or Earth's surface.
Average weather of a particular area over a long period of time; includes annual variations in temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by latitude, closeness of lakes and oceans, topography, wind patterns, and air masses.
Nonrenewable energy resource formed over geologic time from the compression and partial decomposition of organisms that lived millions of years ago.
Natural heating of Earth's surface by certain atmospheric gases, which helps keep Earth warm enough to sustain life.
Urban area where climate is warmer than in the surrounding countryside due to factors such as numerous concrete buildings and large expanses of asphalt.
Large body of air that takes on the characteristics of the area over which it forms; can be described by its stability, temperature, and humidity.
amount of acid in the ocean or a body of water.
Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth that contains about 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
Huge revolving storms caused by wind blowing around a central area of low atmospheric pressure.
The amount of water vapor in the air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.
Also know as air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air over a given area of Earth's surface.
Visible mass of liquid droplets of frozen crystals made of water or various chemicals suspended in the atmosphere.
The gas phase of water.
An organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine and fluorine produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane.
Vaporization- change of state from a liquid to a gas.
Permeable underground layer through which groundwater flows relatively easy.
Coastal area of brackish water formed where the lower end of a freshwater river or stream enters the ocean; provides an excellent source of food and shelter to commercially important marine organisms.
Water that flows downslope on Earth's surface and may enter a stream, river, or lake; its rate is influenced by the angle of the slope, vegetation, rate of precipitation, and soil composition.
Porosity (pore space)
Percentage of open spaces between grains in a rock is highest in well-sorted sediments.
Process by which a cooling gas changes into a liquid and releases thermal energy; change of matter from a gas to a liquid.
Process by which precipitation that has fallen on land surfaces enters the ground and becomes groundwater.
Land area drained by a stream system.
Measure of the amount of salts dissolved in seawater.
Low-lying land area, such as a bog or marsh, that is covered in water a large part of the year and supports specific plant species.
Ability of a material to let water pass through, which is high in material with large, well connected pores and low in material with few pore or small pores.
All the water in Earth.
Process of which water is brought to dry land through artificial means.
Measure how acidic or basic a substance is. (Usually used to test water)
Physical quantity that specifies the amount of heat required to change the temperature of an object or body.
Lowering or collapse of the ground.
The land that water flows across or under on its way to a river.
Accumulation of sediments or dirt. Results from erosion of the land or reef.
A hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to ground water.
Messure the amount of gaseous oxygen dissolved in an aqueous. Dissolved oxygen is vital for underwater life.
Water found beneath Earth's surface.
The movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers.
The movement of water out of an area of saturated soil.
Introduction of contaminations into the natural environment that causes adverse change.
A scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of lifes.
Wobble in Earth's rotational axis.
Energy transfer that occurs when molecules collide; takes place only when substances are in contact with each other.
Energy transfer through space by visible light, ultra violent radiation, and other forms or electromagnetic waves.
A form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature.
Gravitational Potential Energy
The energy associated with the gravitational field.
Process of plants using sunlight to produce carbohydrates.
The sum of potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system.
Outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere that is located above the thermosphere and contains light gases such as helium and hydrogen.
Process in which heavy atomic nuclei split into smaller, lighter nuclei.
1. The law of Ellipses.
2. The law of equal areas.
3. The law of harmonies.
A large body that rotates around the Sun.
The action of a celestial body going round in a orbit.
A wave that travels at the speed of light and that consists of an associated magnetic and electric effect.
The act of rotating usually on a axis.
System that includes stars, nebulae, dust, planets, etc.
Wobble in Earth's rotational axis.
Positively charged center of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons and surrounded by electrons in energy levels; small solid core of a comet.
Process in a star's core in which light weight hydrogen nuclei combine into heavier helium nuclei.
A periodic variation in the inclination of Earth's axis.
A ball of hydrogen and helium with enough mass that it can sustain nuclear fusion at its core.
The common center of mass around which two or more bodies revolve.
The region within the magnetism of a given substance of particle affects other substances.
Transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance; hot rises, cold sinks.
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