Terms in this set (80)
A category of literature
The main genres: Prose (fiction and nonfiction), poetry, and drama
Writing that is in sentences and paragraphs
Examples; newspaper articles, essays, informative documents/contracts, short stories, novels, and more.
Prose writing that tells an imaginary story
Main elements of fiction: plot, character, setting, and theme
Includes short stories and novels
A short work of fiction (up to 50 pages) that is meant to be read in one sitting.
Develops fewer characters and has a less-involved plot than a novel. It is sometimes considered more difficult to write a short story than a novel because the writer has to think about every word so carefully.
A long work of fiction
The author can develop the characters and story line more thoroughly than in a short story
A short story or novel that is set in the past and includes real places and real events of historical importance.
The events that make up a story
A diagram that demonstrates a classical plot structure: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution
The beginning section of a literary work that introduces the characters, setting, and plot.
The part of the plot that follows the exposition and leads to the story's climax.
The rising action is often the largest section of the story.
Includes several conflicts and important moments that develop the characters and drive the story forward
The most exciting/interesting moment in the plot; a turning point in the conflict
The section of the plot that follows the climax (characters might be dealing with consequences of earlier decisions/plot events)
These plot events are gradually leading
The end/conclusion of the story.
Not all stories or novels end with neatly-concluded resolutions; sometimes readers are left with questions if the author left parts of the story unresolved
The TIME and PLACE in which the story is taking place.
Writing in which the writer explores unexpected possibilities of the future, using known scientific data and theories as well as his or her creative imagination.
Example: "Flowers for Algernon" by Daniel Keyes
point of view
Perspective from which the story is told
types of point of view
Two types of 3rd-person narrators (voice outside the story):
Limited "he/she/they" and one character's thoughts and feelings
Omniscient "he/she/they" and more than one character's thoughts and feelings
In fiction, the character or outside voice who tells the story.
The way in which an author develops a character in a story
Two types of characterization:
Direct—the narrator states (explicitly) traits about the character.
Indirect—actions and dialogue demonstrate the character's personality. Other characters' statements can also characterize another character.
Adjectives that describe a character's personal qualities/personality.
A struggle between opposing forces or characters
Character v. him/herself
Character v. character or outside force (God, nature, society)
Protagonist—the main character. The one the reader knows best. (CURZON in Forge)
Antagonist—the character in conflict with the protagonist, the one who causes problems for the protagonist. (BELLINGHAM in Forge)
a condition of uncertainty and excitement
For the reader, produces anxiety and interest in the outcome
The feeling created in the reader by a work of literature.
When the sequence of the story is interrupted to show something that happened earlier.
A message about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader through the literary work.
Words spoken by a character
In prose, dialogue is set off from the rest of the text by quotation marks. In drama, the character's name appears before a colon (: ) followed by their 'line' of dialogue.
HOW a character speaks
Often indicates where a person is from, such as a region of the United States. Can include specific pronunciations of words as well as word choices not used in other parts of the country
Factual prose writing
Deals with real people, places, events and topics
Newspaper articles, auto-bio, bio, essays, true life adventures
an account of a person's life written by someone else
an account of a person's life written by him or herself
An autobiographical account of a PORTION of a person's life, focused on a major theme or topic.
Ex. My Dog Skip
a planned question and answer session that provides in-depth (detailed), first-hand (personal) information
a brief, personal story that reveals something about the subject or the teller
to draw a conclusion based on the available evidence
to read between the lines
to go beyond the explicit in order to understand the implicit
something clearly stated, out right
implicit or implied
something suggested but not stated outright
the reason a writer writes a piece:
a passage or portion of a larger work
a short piece of nonfiction usually on one topic with one purpose
statements that can be proved true with reliable sources
statements that are beliefs or judgments
the most important idea of a written piece
a general statement that needs details to support it
the specific examples or reasons that support the main idea
The order in which events happen in time
From first to last
Written in lines
Does not follow rules of grammar or mechanics
Does not always adhere to the margins of the paper
the deliberate use of features such as repetition, meter, and rhyme, are what commonly distinguish poetry from prose
has stanzas and lines.
bends the rules of grammar/punctuation/capitalization
Sounds: rhythm, oral, meant to be heard
heightened emotional effect
Condensed—every word counts
The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a poem
Whose woods these are I think I know
His house is in the village though
The ship has weather'd every rack,
the prize we sought is won.
Language that is imaginative and is not meant to be taken literally.
The use of vivid language which creates a picture in the reader's mind. Appeals to the five senses.
A poem of public thanks
Demonstrates gratitude and appreciation for the subject of the poem.
Ex.: "For My Sister Molly Who in the Fifties" by Alice Walker.
The repetition of the same sound at the beginning of words that are located next to or near each other in a line of poetry.
Assonance- the repetition of vowel sounds in the middle of words.
Consonance-the repetition of consonant sounds in middle of words.
Nonhuman things or abstract ideas are given human attributes/qualities/characteristics.
A figure of speech in which words are used to imitate sounds.
Examples: buzz, hiss, splat
Sets of two lines that rhyme
A direct comparison between two different/unlike things (without using "like" or "as")...by stating that one thing IS another
The comparison of two UNLIKE things WITHOUT using 'like' or 'as'.
Metaphor is set up and then it is given more details or support to continue the metaphor.
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players
They have their exits and their entrances;
(William Shakespeare, As You Like It)
An object that is used to represent another in poetry, literature, or art.
In "My Mother Pieced Quilts" the quilt represents the whole family and the memories of each family member. They can also be a symbol for the mother herself, who made the quilts.
Repetition of sounds in words that appear close to one another in a poem. The most common is end rhyme, which occurs at the end of two or more lines
A different lower-case letter is assigned for words that end with a similar sound at the end of lines.
Every stanza begins with lower case 'a,' no matter how many letters were used in the previous stanza
Word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated regularly in a poem.
The refrain usually comes at the end of each stanza.
Remember, there are also refrains in music, which you may be more familiar with than refrains in poetry.
Voice in the poem (similar to a narrator in fiction)
Do not assume the poet is also the speaker.
Poet's attitude toward the subject
You annotated your recitation poem to indicate the speaker's tone throughout the poem so that you can speak with the appropriate tone in your recitation
Two or more lines of poetry that together form one unit. Traditionally, a poem's stanzas all have the same number of lines and follow the same pattern of rhythm and rhyme.
Poem that tells a story...has plot, setting, characters, dialogue, and theme.
Example: "Paul Revere's Ride"
Poetry that has no set rhythm or rhyme
Imitates the way we speak.
Restating a text/poem/quotation in your own words.
When I ask you for the main idea of the poem or for the meaning of an example of figurative language in a poem, you are paraphrasing what you read.
Short poems with one speaker. These poems express thoughts and feelings.
Most of the poems you read and wrote were lyric poems. "Paul Revere's Ride," was a narrative poem, so that was the exception.
-literary work meant to be performed by actors, on a stage, in front of an audience
-PLAYS, but also includes television, movies, and radio—all use scripts or screenplays
-author of a play
-spelling: wright is an archaic term for builder or craftsman.
-the text of a drama. The script is made up of both dialogue and stage directions
instructions for the actors and stage crew. Stage directions are separated from the dialogue by parentheses and italics. Stage directions tell the actors how to move, talk, walk, and dress. The stage directions tell the stage crew how to adjust or arrange the lighting, music, set design, costumes, and props.
-large divisions of a play. The Diary of Anne Frank has two Acts.
-smaller divisions of the play. There are five scenes in each of the act of The Diary of Anne Frank
-everything that make a play seem real/come alive. A method of presenting a play or other dramatic performance. Each director makes decisions about staging his/her particular version of a play.
a piece of narration in a movie or play, not accompanied by an image of the speaker. In this play, the voice-over takes place when Anne's voice is heard reading her diary entries at the end of each scene.
a collection of scenery, stage furniture, and other articles used for a particular scene in a play or film
a subordinate (extra/additional) plot in a play, novel, or similar work. The subplot contains its own conflict, which is often separate from the main conflicts of the story.
creative/ artistic liscenes
Writers/Directors adapting a work for another medium (e.g., a film screenplay from a book) often make significant changes, additions to, or omissions from the original plot for the benefit of the new product. They have the artistic license to interpret/adapt the original source in their own way.