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Primary HT Risk Factors

Genetics, smoking, stress, environment, diet

Secondary HT Risk Factors

Renal/renal vascular disease, drugs, aortic coarctation, hyperaldosteronism, glucocorticoid excess, phaeochromocytoma

Common drugs (ABCDE)

A: ACEIs and angiotensin antagonists, B: ß-blockers, C: Ca channel blockers, D: Diuretics, E: Extras

ACE inhibitors

Captopril, enalopril, perindopril

Mechanism: ACEIs

Prevent ANGII formation, inhibit bradykinin

Adverse: ACEIs

Cough, headache, hypotension, hyperkalaemia, rash, itch, taste disturbance, angioedema

Uses: ACEIs, ANG antagonists, renin inhibitors

Hypertension, HF, diabetic nephropathy

ANG antagonists

Iosartan, irbesartan, candesartan

Mechanism: ANG antagonists

AT1 receptor antagonism: decreased vasodilation and aldosterone production

Renin Inhibitors


Mechanism: Renin inhibitors

Direct renin inhibition

Adverse: Renin inhibitors

Hypotension, hyperkalaemia

Adverse: B Blockers

Bronchoconstriction, decreased cardiac contractility, bradycardia, AV block, impotence, depression, sedation, hypoglycaemia

Beta blockers

Propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, carvedilol

Calcium antagonists

Verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, amlodipine

Mechanism: Ca Antagonists

Block L-type Ca channels

Adverse: Ca Antagonists

Cardiac depression, bradycardia, oedema, nausea


Thiazides, loop diuretics, k-sparing etc

Mechanism: Diuretics

Increase Na excretion and therefore H2O excretion

Adverse: Diuretics

Hypokalaemia, hyperuricaemia, hypercholesteraemia, hyperglycaemia

Endothelin blockers


Ganglion blockers


Alpha 1 blockers

Phentolamine (non-selective), Prazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin (selective)

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