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23 terms

Antihypertensives

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Primary HT Risk Factors
Genetics, smoking, stress, environment, diet
Secondary HT Risk Factors
Renal/renal vascular disease, drugs, aortic coarctation, hyperaldosteronism, glucocorticoid excess, phaeochromocytoma
Common drugs (ABCDE)
A: ACEIs and angiotensin antagonists, B: ß-blockers, C: Ca channel blockers, D: Diuretics, E: Extras
ACE inhibitors
Captopril, enalopril, perindopril
Mechanism: ACEIs
Prevent ANGII formation, inhibit bradykinin
Adverse: ACEIs
Cough, headache, hypotension, hyperkalaemia, rash, itch, taste disturbance, angioedema
Uses: ACEIs, ANG antagonists, renin inhibitors
Hypertension, HF, diabetic nephropathy
ANG antagonists
Iosartan, irbesartan, candesartan
Mechanism: ANG antagonists
AT1 receptor antagonism: decreased vasodilation and aldosterone production
Renin Inhibitors
Aliskiren
Mechanism: Renin inhibitors
Direct renin inhibition
Adverse: Renin inhibitors
Hypotension, hyperkalaemia
Adverse: B Blockers
Bronchoconstriction, decreased cardiac contractility, bradycardia, AV block, impotence, depression, sedation, hypoglycaemia
Beta blockers
Propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, carvedilol
Calcium antagonists
Verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, amlodipine
Mechanism: Ca Antagonists
Block L-type Ca channels
Adverse: Ca Antagonists
Cardiac depression, bradycardia, oedema, nausea
Diuretics
Thiazides, loop diuretics, k-sparing etc
Mechanism: Diuretics
Increase Na excretion and therefore H2O excretion
Adverse: Diuretics
Hypokalaemia, hyperuricaemia, hypercholesteraemia, hyperglycaemia
Endothelin blockers
Bosentan
Ganglion blockers
Reserpine
Alpha 1 blockers
Phentolamine (non-selective), Prazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin (selective)