end of year exam Heritage Studies grd 6
Terms in this set (104)
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Sir Leonard Woolley
English archaeologist who supervised the excavations at Ur (1880-1960)
something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially :an object remaining from a particular period
an expert who studies the past by examining objects that people have left behind
an ancient city of Sumner located on a former channel of the Euphrates River
a cylindrical piece of stone usually about an inch or so in height, decorated with an incised design, so that a raised pattern was left when the seal was rolled over soft clay. In the ancient Near East, documents, storage jars, and other important possessions were signed, sealed, and identified in this way
design pressed into softened clay or tar
Sumerian temple built to honor their chief god
a city and its surrounding lands that act as a government
a popular saying that is meant to express something wise or true
a bucket attached to a long pole, to lift water from the nile to the Basins
River in Egypt; gave life to the Egyptian desert; Biannual flooding; longest river in the world (Over 4000 Mi. long) Had cataracts or rapids; provided fertile soil
flat, low-lying land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
a person who preserves bodies after death
Egyptian pharaoh who built the great pyramid
an ancient Egyptian city; the site of the Great Pyramid
A granite stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic characters, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
around 19th dynasty, "heretic king", changed religion, worshiped Aten, changed name to Akhenaten, meaning "he who worships Aten"
Englishman and Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen (1873-1939)
people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food
refers to when the Israelites were "passed over" by the angel of death as dictated by the tenth plague; a holiday celebrated by Jews as a day of deliverance
The portable sanctuary in which the Jews carried the Ark of the Covenant throughout their travels in the desert.
the belief in government by divine guidance
A group that migrated to the southern coast of Palestine in the twelfth century B.C. They became one of the principal rivals of the Israelites during and after the demise of the Canaanites.Controlled the iron industry
located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform, Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. Famous for developing the first alphabet, which was adopted by the Greeks. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, these merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce.
capital of Israel, Capital of the Northern Kingdom
the disperse of Jewish people due to force
This Jewish holiday is marked by the exchange of gifts, donations to the poor, and the reading of the Book of Esther in the Bible, and which commemorates their deliverance from massacre by Haman
Jewish patriot whose re dedication of the Temple of Jerusalem is celebrated, led the Maccabean revolt, hammer
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning.
A civilization along the Indus River estblished around 7,000 BCE. This city consisted of over 5,000 square miles.
The earliest Indian civilization, dating back to 2500bc, began in the valley of this river in the northwestern part of the subcontinent of south Asia
the study of language
the predominant religion of India, A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
Related to Confucius, who taught principles of social order, harmony, and good government
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Qin Shi Huangdi
founder of the brief Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE; removes power of feudal lords----bureaucrats rule large provinces; brutal ruler; built up a very strong army to destroy possible threats; built the Great Wall; institutes census
Chinese practice of easing pain by sticking thin needles into patients' skin
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
a mountainous peninsula in southern Greece, between the Ionian and Aegean Sea
a political system governed by a few people
the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena, A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Alexander The Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
first settlers of land near Rome
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them, The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 149)
the poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War, Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Wars between the Romans and Carthaginians that marked Rome as the preeminent power in the eastern as well as the western Mediterranean.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
vast subterranean networks of galleries and passageways designed as cemeteries for Christian dead until the Edict of Milan passed by Constantine
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
Diego De Landa
16h Century missionary. Wrote about the maya providing us with valuable resources; unfortunately, he also burned all but 4 of the Maya's written works
the man in charge of the armies
Pok to Pok
popular ball game played by the Mayans
Horn of Africa
a peninsula of northeastern Africa (the easternmost part of Africa) comprising Somalia and Djibouti and Eritrea and parts of Ethiopia.
an area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes
a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
Desert nomads who live in small groups throughout the central and south Sahara., Nicknamed "the Blue Men of the Desert"
an african kingdom, in what is now ethiopia and eritrea, that reached the height of its power in the fourth century A.D.
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world. (p. 376)
big stone houses
most important missionary and explorer of Africa in Victorian period, Scottish, went back and forth from Africa over 30 years, abolitionist, 1871 disappeared but was living among Africans, found by Sir Henry Morton Stanley
A system of printing where characters are carved onto a wooden block. The block is then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper.
Imperial Medical Encyclopedia
early Chinese book on medical problems and treatment
originally burial sites; evolved as the principal worship area of Buddhist temples
the native religion and former ethnic cult of Japan
3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5) usually focusing on nature
the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor of India.
the civilization that developed from the eastern Roman Empire following the death of the emperor Justinian (C.E. 565) until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity, Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)
slender tower of a mosque, from which Muslims are called to prayer
a soldier who is payed to fight for another country or group (don't have enough soldiers so they can just go pay for others but it can be bad cause they can be bought off and they are not as willing to fight and you have to pay for them
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Byzantine Emperor who outlawed the use of icons, (717-741) outlawed icon use, monks didn't like it, Roman popes were opposed to the iconoclastic edicts
system in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters.
emperor who led the Byzantines to their last period of greatness; nicknamed "Basil the Bulgur Slayer"
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
a Frankish dynasty founded by Clovis I that reigned in Gaul and Germany from about 500 to 750
a region around Rome that was captured from the Lombards by Pepin the Short and given to the pope
King of the Franks from 768 to 814 and emperor of Rome from 800 to 814. Ruled over 40 years. Most important leader of the Franks because he unified nearly all Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Fighting on horseback with lances, with the goal of knocking the opponent from his horse
Battle of Hastings
in 1066 the Normans invaded England led by William the Conqueror; took control from the Anglo-Saxons
first Plantagenet King of England, In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal courts. Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine, father of King John