APES Biogeochemical Cycles Quiz
Terms in this set (52)
An organism such as bacteria or fungi, that breaks down waste and dead organisms
phosphates and nitrates
Eutrophication is due to an increase of the nutrients ___________
primary producer (autotroph)
Organisms that produce their own food using energy from the sun (photosynthesis), such as plants and algae, as well as organisms that create their own food using energy from hydrogen sulfide bonds (chemosynthesis) like bacteria near hydrothermal vents
6 carbon dioxide molecules + 6 water molecules ------> 1 glucose molecule + 6 oxygen molecules
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
organisms that do NOT make their food.
Which sphere contains most of the nitrogen on Earth?
A type of crop that should be planted to increase the amount of nitrogen naturally, so that excess fertilizers do not need to be used. Decreases the likelihood of eutrophication
the addition of phosphorus or nitrogen to bodies of water that may lead to an overgrowth of producers (usually algae).
law of conservation of matter
matter cannot be created nor destoyed
Steps of eutrophication
1st) increased algae growth, 2nd) severe depletion of usable oxygen "hypoxia", 3rd)organisms die "dead zone"
Ocean sediments such as limestone and sedimentary rock
What is the largest reservoir of carbon?
matter that is essential for life processes
What biogeochemical cycle does NOT have an atmospheric component?
Which soil color contains a healthy amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, giving nutrients to plants?
nitrogen gas (N2)
What is NOT a usable form of nitrogen?
Which process converts nitrogen gas (N2) into a ammonia (NH3), by lightning and nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
Which process converts ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ions (NH4+) into Nitrite (NO2-) and Nitrate (NO3-)?
Which process completes the nitrogen cycle by converting nitrates in soil or water back to nitrogen gas, that rises into the atmosphere?
Which cycle is most directly effected by combustion?
sugars and oxygen
What are the products of photosynthesis?
1st trophic level (producers)
What trophic level goes through photosynthesis AND respiration?
Which activity decreases the release of carbon?
runoff of fertilizers, sewage and detergents
How does eutrophication reach our groundwater?
Which cycle connects all other cycles?
Which process must have particulates (such as dust) in the air, in order for water vapor to make clouds?
burning fossil fuels
How do humans mainly put carbon into the atmosphere?
Is an increase of carbon making the oceans more alkaline or more acidic?
Necessary for the formation clouds. Can be in the form of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), aerosols, sea spray, dust, volcanic ash, soot and other particulate matter (tiny particles). Water vapor aggregates around these particles!!! Water vapor alone will not form clouds.
SOx is naturally (nonanthropogenic) released from
emissions from burning coal
Main anthropogenic source of sulfur in the atmosphere
emissions of vehicles
Main anthropogenic source of NOx in the atmosphere
nitrous oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx)
What are the two components of acid rain?
What is the MAIN component of acid deposition, accounting for 75% of acid rain?
CO2 + H20 ------> H2CO3
carbon dioxide + water ------> Carbonic acid
unpolluted rain equation (not acid rain)
SO2(g) + O ------> SO3(g) + H2O ------> H2SO4(aq)
sulfur dioxide + oxygen ------> sulfur trioxide + water ------> sulfuric acid
equation for sulfur's role in acid deposition
3NO2 (g) + H2O ------> 2HNO3 + NO(g)
Nitrous oxide (nitrogen dioxide) and water ------> nitric acid and byproduct of Nitrous oxide (nitrogen monoxide)
equation for nitrogen's role in acid deposition
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Main compound that causes ocean acidification
Burning fossil fuels
What antropogenic activity is the main cause of Ocean acidification?
1) Use phosphate-free detergents and soaps, 2) Intercropping legumes (soybeans with nitrogen fixing bacteria) with other crops, 3) plant cattails in wetlands that absorb excess nitrates and phosphates from the water, 4) reduce commercial fertilizer use
What are ways to reduce Eutrophication?
Uptake of nutrients by plants in order to incorporate nutrients into their tissues
fungi that gives phosphate to the plant
bacteria in the roots of legume that naturally fixate nitrogen, so fertilizers don't have to be used.
Burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and cellular respiration
What events increase carbon in the atmosphere?
nitrogen gas-->ammonia-->nitrite--> nitrate -->nitrogen gas
What is the simplified, correct sequence for the nitrogen cycle?
What is the original driving force that causes water from the surface to move into the atmosphere?
atmosphere, ocean sediments, phytoplankton in the ocean, tissues of organisms , northern forests, land sediments, fossils and fossil fuels
What are the reservoirs (sinks) for storing carbon?
nothern forests (large old growth forests = boreal forests)
What is considered to be the "missing carbon sink"?
lakes and ponds
Eutrophication can occur in rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, and estuaries (gulf). Which of these ecosystems is MOST likely to suffer extreme eutrophication, due to a build up of excessive nutrients?
The phosphorus cycle continues until phosphate is stored at the bottom of
increasing levels of carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels
What mainly causes ocean acidification?
Ocean acidification interferes with with bottom-dwellers ability to form ________________________ shells and results in dissolving their shells.
1) DMS acts act condensation nuclei, giving water vapor a place to condense, resulting in increased cloud formation, 2) more cloud cover results in COOLING climate
How can the release of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) into the atmosphere affect climate?