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Magnetism

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magnet
any material that attracts to iron and materials that contain iron
What are the 3 properties of a magnet?
Magnets attract iron, and materials that contain iron. Magnets attract or repel other magnets. One part of a magnet will always point north when allowed to swing freely
magnetic pole
where the magnetic force is the strongest, every magnet has two poles, a north and a south pole
how do the poles interact?
Poles that are alike to each other repel, and poles that are opposite each other attract.
magnetic force
the attraction of repulsion between two magnetic poles
magnetic field
The area of magnetic force around the magnet
Magnetic field Lines
Invisible lines that map out the magnetic field around the magnet, these lines spread out from one pole, curve around the magnet, and return to the other pole. The distance between the magnetic field lines indicates the strength of a magnetic field
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that has properties of that element
element
one of about 100 basic materials that make up all matter
nucleus
the center region of an atom, contains the neutrons and protons
proton
a particle that carries a positive charge
nuetron
particle that carries no charge
electron
a particle outside the nucleus that carries a negative charge
electron spin
a spinning electron produces a magnetic field that makes the electron behave like a tiny magnet in an atom
how come most materials have a weak magnetic force?
In most atoms, electrons form pairs that spin in opposite directions, producing opposite magnetic fields that cancel each other out.
magnetic domain
a grouping of atoms that have their magnetic fields aligned
how are the domains arranged in a magnetized material/non magnetized material
in a magnetized material, the domains are aligned while in a non-magnetized material, the domains are randomly spread out
ferromagnetic material
a material that shows strong magnetic properties, in nature, iron, nickel, cobalt, and gadolinium are common ferromagnetic materials
Can magnets be made, destroyed, or broken?
YES
temporary magnet
A magnet made from a material that easily loses its magnetism
permanent magnet
A magnet made from a material that keeps its magnetism for a long time
What are two ways to destroy a magnet?
By dropping it or striking it hard or heating it
What happens if you break a magnet in two, and why?
You will get two smaller magnets both with a north and south pole. This is because the domains are lined up in the same direction.
compass
A device that has a magnetized needle that spins freely.
Why is Earth like a bar magnet?
Just like a bar magnet, Earth has a magnetic fields surrounding it and two magnetic poles.
Why does a compass needle point north?
The poles of the compass align themselves with Earth's magnetic field.
If you followed north on a compass, where would it lead you?
The compass would lead you to Earth's magnetic north pole.
magnetic declination
the angle between geographic north and the north to which a compass needle points.
How can Earth make a magnet out of ferromagnetic materials?
Since Earth has a strong magnetic field, if you place a ferromagnetic material in north-south direction, it will over time become a magnet. The domains of the material would eventually line up in the same direction.
What does iron do, in rocks, when the rock is molten, and after?
The iron lines up in the direction on Earth's magnetic field. When the rock hardens the iron is then stuck in place.
What did scientists discover when studying rock?
They discovered that the direction and strength of Earth's magnetic field have changed over time.
What does Earth's magnetic field do to the electrically charged particles in space?
The Earth's magnetic field affects the movement of electrically charges particles.
Van Allen Belts
Two doughnut-shaped regions 1,000 and 25,000 kilometers above Earth's surface.
solar wind
a stream of electrically charged particles flowing at high speed from the sun.
magnetosphere
Earth's magnetic field shaped by the solar wind.
aurora
A glowing region in the atmosphere caused by charged particles from the sun
What causes an aurora?
When high speed charged particles get close to the Earth's surface, they interact with atoms in the atmosphere, this causes some of the atoms to give off light.
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