OB - Labor and Birth Process

Terms in this set (61)

• The bones that make up the face and cranial base are fused and fixed
• The five bones that make up the rest of the cranium (two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and the occipital bone- they are soft and pliable, with gaps between the plates of the bones
• Membranous spaces between the bones are called sutures and the intersections of these sutures are called fontanels

Sutures
• Sutures allow the cranial bones to overlap in order for the head to adjust in shape when pressure is exerted on it by uterine contractions or the maternal bony pelvis
• The sutures close as the bones grow and the brain reaches its full gorth
• Change (elongate) shape of the fetal skull at birth is known as molding:
- slight overlapping of fetal bones (resolves within 72 hours)
If sutures are fused > difficulty with accommodation, they will break sutures open (compartment syndrome if they don't)

• Fluid can collect in the scalp (caput saccedaneum), or blood can collect beneath the scalp (cephalohematoma)
• Caput succedaneum is edema of the scalp. Swelling crosses suture lines and disappears within 3 to 4 days
• Cephalohematoma is collection of blood between the periosteum and bone that occurs several hours after birth- does not cross the suture line and reabsorbs over the next 6 to 8 weeks
• Sutures help identify the position of the fetal head; palpation of these sutures by the examiner reveals the position of the fetal head and rotation that has occurred


Fontanels: accommodate rapid brain growth
• Anterior fontanel (larger): Diamond shaped, 3 cm by 2 cm, Lies at the junction of the sagittal, coronal, and frontal sutures, closes by 18 months after birth

• Posterior fontanel (smaller): Triangular, Junction of the sutures of the two parietal bones and the occipital bone, 1 cm by 2 cm, Closes 6 to 8 weeks after birth
- if bulging > hydrocephalus, increased ICP, assessing when they're crying and if it bulges everytime
- depressed > dehydrated
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