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If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.

decreased delivery of oxygen

T or F: Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia is characterized by bursts of atrial contractions with little pause between them.


T or F: Tissues damaged by myocardial infarction are replaced by connective tissue.


T or F: As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic valve.


T or F: An ECG provides direct information about valve function.


The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.

atrial depolarization

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.

threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

Which of these vessels receives blood during ventricular systole?

both the aorta and pulmonary trunk

Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.

AV node

Select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.

The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all

When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.

noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ________.

causing threshold to be reached more quickly

Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?

skin color

Isovolumetric contraction ________.

refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers

To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the ________.

second intercostal space to the right of the sternum

Which vessel(s) of the heart receive(s) blood during right ventricular systole?

pulmonary trunk

The condition where fluid compresses the heart and limits its ability to contract is called ________.

cardiac tamponade

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells, ________.

tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ________.

the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.

pump blood with greater pressure

Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?

closure of the heart valves

Which of the events below does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?

Ventricles are in diastole

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.

a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.

left atrium

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.

papillary muscles

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.

angina pectoris

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.

coronary arteries

The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________.

pumps blood against a greater resistance

Which of the following is not an age-related change affecting the heart?

thinning of the valve flaps

Foramen ovale ________.

connects the two atria in the fetal heart

Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?

AV valve

The tricuspid valve is closed ________.

when the ventricle is in systole

The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that _________.

regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur

The myocardium is the layer _________.

of the heart that actually contracts

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.

has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

During the period of ventricular filling ________.

blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles

The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

isovolumetric relaxation

The time of day most hazardous for heart attacks is ________.


A slow heart rate increases end ________.

diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction

During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.

some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores

Commotio cordis is heart failure due to a ________.

relatively mild blow to the chest that occurs during a vulnerable interval (2 ms) when the heart is repolarizing

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