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Pre Algebra Terms
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Gravity
Terms in this set (74)
Area of Circle
Area of a circle = π x r^2
The answer is squared.
Circumference of a Circle
The distance around a circle.
C = 2πr
Diameter of a Circle
A segment that contains the center of the circle and whose endpoints are on the circle
D = 2R or 2r
Radius of a Circle
A line segment between the center and a point on the circle or sphere
1/2 the diameter
Fraction
A fraction is a small part or item forming a piece of a whole
Parts of a fraction
Numerator, Fraction bar, Denominator
Numerator
The top number of a fraction.
Denominator
The bottom number in a fraction
Add or Subtract Fractions
Find a common denominator, then add or subtract the numerators
Never add or subtract the denominators.
Multiply Fractions
Multiply numerators then denominators and simplify
Divide Fractions
Swap the numerator and denominator of the second fraction around and then multiply the two fractions together.
Reciprocal
Switching the denominator and the numerator when dividing fractions
Improper Fraction
A fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator
Mixed Number
A number represented by a whole number and a fraction
Proper Fraction
A fraction with a numerator smaller than the denominator
Converting Improper Fraction
To convert an improper fraction into a mixed number, simply divide the numerator by the denominator.
Converting Mixed Numbers
Multiply denominator by the whole number and add the numerator
Reduce or Simplify Fractions
You can simplify fractions by dividing both parts by the same factor
Reflective Symmetry
Figures that can be divided into mirror images by at least one line of symmetry.
Remainder
The amount left over when one number is divided by another.
Translation Symmetry
A figure has translation symmetry if you can slide it to a position in which it looks exactly the same as it did in its original position.
Rotational Symmetry
If you can rotate an object less than 360 degrees and the object looks like it did before you turned it, then the object has rotational symmetry.
Dilation
Transformation that stretches or shrinks a figure to create a similar figure
Mean
A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list.
Mode
The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
Range
The difference between the largest and smallest values that occur in a set of data.
Median
The middle number.
Order data. Find the middle number.
If there are two middle values, find their average.
Square Root
A number that is multiplied by itself to form a product.
The inverse of squaring a number.
Absolute Value
The distance a number is from zero on a number line.
Always positive.
Order Of Operations
PEMDAS.
Rules describing what sequence to use in evaluating expressions.
Pythagorean Theorem
a²+b²=c²
A squared plus b squared = c squared, where c is the hypotenuse of a right triangle.
To find c you must find the square root of c2.
Equilateral Triangle
A triangle with three equal sides.
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle that has 2 equal sides.
Scalene Triangle
A triangle with no equal sides.
Right Triangle
A triangle that has a 90 degree angle.
Equiangular Triangle
A triangle with three equal angles, each measuring 60.
Acute Triangle
A triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
Obtuse Triangle
A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees.
Perimeter of a Square
4 x s or Add all sides
s = side
Perimeter of a Triangle
Add all three sides P= a+b+c.
Perimeter of a Rectangle
2 x length + 2 x width [or (length + width) x 2]
Area of a Square
A = side (s) x side (s)
The answer is squared.
Area of a Rectangle
A = length (l) x width (w)
The answer is squared.
Area of a Triangle
A = 1/2 x base (b) x height (h)
The answer is squared.
Integers
All whole numbers (both positive and negative) and zero.
Whole Numbers
Whole numbers are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on. If a number has a negative sign, a decimal point, or a part that's a fraction, it is not a whole number.
Real Numbers
All the numbers that can be represented by points on a number line.
Expanded Notation
A way of writing a number as the sum of the products of the digits and the place values of the digits.
3,523 = 3,000 + 500 + 20 + 3
Standard Notation
Numbers written the "regular" way.
Scientific Notation
A mathematical method of writing numbers using powers of ten.
Exponents
The number that is small and raised to show how many times to multiply the number by itself.
Volume of rectangle
How much space something takes up.
Volume = Length (L) x Width (W) x Height (H)
The answer is cubed.
Volume of a cube
Volume = side x side x side
or V=s³
The answer is cubed.
Volume of sphere
Volume = 4/3 x π x r^3
The answer is cubed.
Volume of cylinder
Volume = π x r^2 x h
The answer is cubed.
Volume of pyramid
Volume = 1/3 x base (b) x height (h)
The answer is cubed.
Slope
Rise over run (rise/run) or the steepness of a line
The ratio of the rise and the run between any two points in a line
Area of a sector
Area = (central angle/360) x π x r²
Area is squared.
Pie
3.14
π
Hypotenuse
In a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle.
Sector
A section of a circle enclosed by two radii and an arc with a central angle at the center
Central angle
An angle whose vertex is the center of the circle
Multiplying & Dividing Integers
Two integers with the same sign are positive.
Two integers with different signs is negative
Adding Integers
Adding two positive integers always makes a positive sum.
Adding two negative integers always makes a negative sum.
To find the sum of a positive and a negative integer, take the absolute value of each integer, then subtract the values, take the sign of the greater integer.
Linear Pair of Angles
Add to 180 degrees, they share a common point, they share a common side (HAVE to be touching), always next to eachother.
Polynomial
An algebraic expression with two or more terms
Adding Polynomials
Get rid of parenthesis. If necessary, distribute.
Rewrite the problem by stacking.
Add or subtract.
Subtracting Polynomials
Get rid of parenthesis.
Distribute the minus by multiplying -1 times each monomial within the parenthesis.
Rewrite the problem with stacking.
Add or subtract.
Multiplying Polynomials Example 1
Multiplying Polynomials Example 2
Multiplying Polynomials Example 3
Dividing Polynomials Example 1
Dividing Polynomials Example 2
Slope
Rise/run or the steepness of a line
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