a philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal and imagination
American writer, poet, and philosopher who believed in simple living and personal freedom, "civil disobedience"
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
This was the movement in opposition to slavery, often demanding immediate, uncompensated emancipation of all slaves. This was generally considered radical, and there were only a few adamant abolitionists prior to the Civil War. Almost all abolitionists advocated legal, but not social equality for blacks.
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
James Henry Hammond
A senator and slave owner form South Carolina who believed in the necessity of slaves in society and that blacks were inferior to the superior whites.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God. His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
migration of settlers across the western unites states after the Louisiana Purchase, pushed Native American tribes out of the way
1820 compromise of the admission of Missouri into the United States. Admitted Missouri as a slave state, and Maine as a free state
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
American politician from Illinois who developed the method of popular sovereignty as a way to settle slave state or free state. He helped passed the compromise of 1850 as well as giving the states the choice with popular sovereignty.
Republican (1861-1865) and (1865) The Emancipation Proclamation declared in 1862. The 13th Amendment is passed in 1865. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. His attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election. First President assassinated.
Compromise of 1850
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
North v. South
- NORTH: 1st and 2nd world countries highly industrialized; blames South for environmental problems; favors international order (abide by agreements and treaties) and domestic justice
-SOUTH: 3rd world countries, lack industrial development, focus on primary products or raw material exports (i.e. bananas, coffee, wood), thinks North is hypocritical because they are taking advantage of South, many restructured their economies in the 1960s in an attempt to liberate themselves from economic rule of multinational corporations; favors domestic order and wants international justice, especially with economic issues
Suspension of habeus corpus
Lincoln suspends Habeus corpus (which led to a military arrests without a trial) in Maryland to keep it in the Union. It's unconstitutional but he justifies it by saying Congress wasn't in session and he had to make a quick decision
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
crucial confederate fortress on the Mississippi whose fall to grant in 1863 cut the south in two; 6 week sage that gave union control of entire Mississippi river : turning point of war
a Union victory in this battle marked the last time Confederate forces attempted a major invasion of the North
Gen. William. T. Sherman
U.S. general who supported Grant in the West; later captured Atlanta, Georgia, and led a destructive march to the Atlantic coast.
Gen. Ulysses Grant
Famous general from the Civil War. Well known for his Vicksburg campaign and his ability to give chase and eventually beat down Lee's army.
Lincoln's 10% plan
Lincoln's reconstruction plan which would allow a southern state to reenter the union if only 10% of the voters in that state pledged alleigance to the union.
Plan by Radical Republicans to rebuild the South after the Civil War. No state could deprive citizenship to any native born American or withhold the right to vote, no former confederate leader could hold office without congressional approval, and authorized Military Reconstruction.
Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
System in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Progressive president that believed government should be more involved in business. He was known as a trustbuster because he broke-up the monopolies.
28th President of the United States, 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter, became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspired speaker and a brilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt ;Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes (Settlement House)
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Booker T Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
"white man's burden"
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
desire for military strength, thirst for new markets, and belief in cultural superiority
reforms proposed by progressives at the city level against political bosses, against political machines, included commission form of government to successfully take control of utilities from monopolies in some cities
German submarines, named for the German Unterseeboot, or "undersea boat," proved deadly for Allied ships in the war zone. U-boat attacks played an important role in drawing the United States into the war.
American Expeditionary Force
the name given to the American military force that fought in world war I
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 22 million people, including 675,00 in the United States (easily more then double the death total for the US because of WWI)
Committee on Public Information
Goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom, American government propaganda agency that aroused zeal for Wilson's ideals and whipped up hatred for Kaiser Wilhelm II
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
specific methods used in print, graphics, or videos to persuade people to buy a product or use a service
Scopes Monkey trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment.
Causes of depression
stock markets crashed, unemployment rising, the dustbowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs, buying on credit
U.S. president during stock market crash, who rejected the Progressive emphasis on activist government to pursue a program of minimal business regulation, low taxes, and high tariffs; encouraged businesses to regulate themselves, his belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
Herbert Hoover's approach to managing the economy. Firms and organizations in each economic sector would be asked to cooperate w/ each other in pursuit of efficiency, profit, and public good.
Franklin D Roosevelt
Was elected president of the US by an overwhelming democratic majority in 1932, introduced the New Deal, and led the US through most of WWII
New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet.
a plan by President Franklin Roosevelt intended to bring economic relief, recovery, and reforms to the country after the Great Depression
The special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby decreasing the amount of bank failures and restored faith in the banks.
Social Security Administration
a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services which provides benefits for retirement, survivors/insurance, disability, health insurance, and death.
Securities and Exchange Commission
US government agency which oversees the operations of the stock markets which trade stocks, bonds, and other types of securities.
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
Federal Emergency Relief Act
The Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins, a New York social worker who was one of Franklin D. Roosevelt's most influential advisers , law provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed Affected the people in trying to aid people feeling the effects of the depression
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.
vice president who became president when FDR died in April 1945; he was elected on his own in 1948. He ordered the use of atomic bombs on Japan to end World War II, set the course of postwar containment of communism in the Cold War, and created a Fair Deal program to carry on the New Deal's domestic agenda.
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany. 34th President of the United States (1890-1961)
..., toxin used to kill bugs, but had larger effects on large birds or pray through biomagnification
Long range missiles that could reach other continents without having to be delivered by airplanes, ships, or other modes of transportation. (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation; 1957 group founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against segregation using nonviolent means
A civil rights protest in which blacks and whites rode interstate buses together in 1961 to test whether southern states were complying with the Supreme Court ruling against segregation on interstate transport.
..., the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
..., President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Environmental Protection Agency
..., an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
..., Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
..., new political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism