renaissance and middle ages
Terms in this set (49)
how did Northern writers try to reform society?
criticize the catholic church, reform society promote education (for women)
who were christian humanists?
besiderius eramus of honland wrote the praise of folly making fun of merchants and priests, thomas more of England was also important, utopian society
How dd printing spread ideas through the renaissance?
moveable type was invested in 1045, johann gurenburg invents printing press in 1440, was important because printed cheap books, bible printed in 1455
how did the rena. change in the arts
returned to classic greek and roman, realistic portraits of people, secular and religious art,
What were some changes in society during the rena?
printing = easier access to information, maps and charts recorded/printed/distributed, published laws and codes
why was vernacular important during the rena?
was original/own language, used to unify small groups of people, people no longer relied on church to lead, nationalism
what was Florence
mecca for architecture, pope tried to build church later focused on warfare, angled walls and star shaped forts
later pope sixtus V fixed crime, aqueducts/water, paved roads, moved obelisk to st peters square
why were classical and worldly values not present during the middle ages?
middle ages were focused on crusades, religious war, so focused on religion, are was not important
what were the affects opf the 100 years war?
france and Europe at war, while Italy gained power
means rebirth, known as age of inventions 12-13 cen Italy rebirth
who were new "nobles" during rena
rivals with sienna, black plague wiped out 1/2 of their population, florence declined, rich donated to arts
What were the affects of the crusades?
Byzantine Empire is weakened; Pope's power declines; Power of feudal nobles weakens; Kings become stronger; Religious intolerance grows; Italian cities expand trade and grow rich ; Muslims increasingly distrust Christians; Trade grows between Europe and the middle East; European technology improves as Crusaders learn from muslims
what was feudalism?
land based system, 850-950society was divided between the king, nobles, knights, and serfs. Lords gave land vassals in exhange for service
what was the role of the church?
kept order in society, social order, secular political power, christianity = spreading during age of faith, was the only political organization
social classes during feudalism
fighters: nobles and knights
prayers: mons, nuns, leaders of church
social class was inherited
what is a manor?
A main part of a noble's land.
what is canon?
church law, The canon is an official list of holy scriptures
what was the norman conquest?
1066 England invaded fr the last time , he defeats his rial for english crown
What is the Magna Carta
The magna carta is a document that said the king can not raise taxes without asking the the nobles and church leaders.
what is parliament?
England's lawmaking group
what were Italy's advantages?
france and England were still at war, first to have rebirth
what were urban centers in Italy?
ver seas trade was popular because of crusades, northers Italy urban
Who were the Merchants and the Medici?
merchants did not inherit social class, Medici were the family ruling florence at the time
what is classical heritage
rena scholars did not approve of lit in the middle ages, went back to classics roman and greek
what was humanism
the study of classic texts and the focus on human potential and achievements
how did people enjoy worldly pleasures?
glad to be alive from plague, men enjoyed life with out offending the gods, were wealthy lived well, devoted catholics
what does secular mean?
Worldly concerned with here and now.
what are patrons of the arts?
renaissance popes spread large amours of money to the arts, patrons are financial supporters.
What is a renaissance man?
A man who excelled in many fields
what is a renaissance women?
according to book courtier, upper class, classic, charming
what was the Catholic reformation like?
catholics remained loyal moved to do so reforms helped
who was ignatius of Loyola?
Founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits) who
1. Founded schools throughout Europe
2. Converted people in Catholicism
3. Stopped the spread of Protestantism
How was the pope reformed?
paul iii council of cardinals investigated problems in the church,
what is the council of trent?
explained several church teachings, issued rules to eliminate abuses taking place in the church (like the selling of indulgences) and issued rules to reform the clergy
who was paul iv
vigorously carried out council of Trent's decrees, he established an Index of Forbidden Books that were considered dangerous to Catholic faith and burned them
how does the northern renaissance begin?
recovering after black plague, Scholars and students visited italy (which was divided into city states) & merchants bring ideas to other places they trade with.
how did artistic ideas spread during the rena?
as war spread, writers and artists moved north bringing their craft with them
who was albrecht durer
A German painter who impressed the Italians wth his minute details in his paintings, famous wood cuts, rena man paintings, inspired other artists
who was hans holbein?
he was a German man he travled through Europe painting the rich and famous including KIng Henry the eighth.
what was the flemish painters?
interested in realism and individualism, oil based paints were introduced
how do northern writers try to reform society?
influenced by rena and the idea of humanish
what were Christian humanists like?
Eramos wrote praise of roly =, very christian
how did painting spread ideas during the renaissance?
chinese block printings
how does printing spread learning
easy access to cheap books/ info
what were calvins teachings?
ideas about god salvaion human nature, women and men are bad by nature, god saves few, calvinism, based on his teachings
where does calvinism spread to?
Germany, France, Scotland, and England
who were the anabaptists?
only those who were old enough to chose if they wanted to or not, Radical Protestants who practiced adult baptism.
what did women do in the reformation?