Cambridge Distance DELTA Module 1 ASSUMPTIONS
Assumptions and reasons for paper 2, task 2B
Terms in this set (57)
Learners need to understand the meaning of a text before focusing on specific language.
Because focusing on meaning first provides the context for the language focus.
Learners need a task to help them understand the meaning of a text.
Because otherwise they don't know which part of the text to pay attention to.
Because otherwise they might "tune out."
Learners need to see/hear language in context.
Because they will better understand the meaning of language if it is in context.
Because it reflects real-life language.
Learners need practice in skills work.
Because they may not transfer skills from L1, teacher intervention is needed.
Because skills are integrated. Developing one will help the others.
Because learners expect this from a language class.
Authentic materials are an important source of language.
Because they provide language as it is used-exposure to 'real' language in 'real' contexts helps learners use it 'realistically'.
Because it helps motivate learners by reminding them there is a real context for the language they're learning.
Listening texts are a good way of introducing language items.
Because it is similar to learning in L1 or 'real life.'
Because listening provides a model for learners of what they might eventually be expected to produce.
Learners will benefit from scaffolding or a framework, e.g. filling the gaps and filling the table.
Because support gives learners confidence/they won't feel overwhelmed.
Learners will benefit from moving from receptive to productive skills.
Because this may reflect how languages are learned outside the classroom.
Learners will benefit from selecting language items to fill the gaps or fill the gaps or fill the table/seeing distinctive formatting.
Because they will notice the language if it is flagged up.
Learners should learn lexical chunks without deconstructing them.
Because this may be how L1 is learnt (i.e. through recall of prescribed chunks of language).
Because pre-fabricated chunks will increase the speed of production.
Because fluency reflects the way native speakers use lexis.
Learners need/want idiomatic expressions.
Because it is important to understand common native speaker chunks of language/learners feel motivated by learning these.
Learners benefit from working collaboratively/interacting/communicating with peers.
Because they feel more secure speaking to a peer individually instead of in front of whole class or to teacher.
Because the confidence of collaboration will help them speak fluently and extensively.
Because it encourages them to engage cognitively with the language, which helps them retain the language.
Because speaking helps retention.
Because they can learn from each other and promote a learner-centered classroom.
Learners should develop the skills necessary for independent learning.
Because guessing the meaning of unknown expressions from context is a key strategy to be encouraged.
Teacher should act to facilitate learner independence.
Because this helps them to learn outside the classroom.
Guided discovery/learners working out language is a valid form of language input.
Because it will activate knowledge they already have and involve them more in the learning process (this should increase the effectiveness of the learning).
It is useful to guide learners to use reference sources (grammar references).
Because this encourages them to work independently (so they can learn outside class).
It is valid to focus on discrete items of grammar.
Because many students respond well as this is what they expect (previous learning experience).
Because this approach appeals to certain types of learners.
It is useful to give learners explicit grammar rules.
Because these are fundamental to language learning and provide structure for learning/developing fluency.
Because it's encouraging for learners to feel there is a clear system.
Learners benefit from knowing and using metalanguage.
Because this will help them refer to other sources for information and encourage their independence.
Learners have studied these structures before and should focus on use rather than form.
Because they need opportunities to recycle and build on what they know.
It's important to appeal to learners with a range of learning styles, in this case ____.
Because different learners learn language in different ways and it is necessary to cater to all different learners.
Learners benefit from noticing language.
Because it aids acquisition.
Because it helps learners notice the gaps between their own language use and correct forms.
It's important to focus on both skills and systems/integrate different skills.
Because they reinforce one another in language learning.
Learners need receptive practice before productive practice.
Because listening/receptive recognition should precede production of language.
Because this is how languages are learned in the real world.
Advanced learners need to extend their lexical repertoire.
Learners need to have a range of functional exponents at their disposal.
So that they can express themselves more concisely and with more variety.
So they can sound more like a native speaker.
Because they need to understand a range of speakers.
Learners should learn lexical chunks/phrases/idiomatic language especially in spoken functional language.
Because it helps them to retrieve language more easily/quickly.
Because it has high surrender value outside the classroom.
Advanced learners benefit from focusing on many different forms together.
Presenting the ____ forms together helps them notice their own weaknesses.
Because it presents a motivating challenge.
Because it allows the teacher to notice learners' weaknesses.
Form and meaning cannot be separated so it is useful to present both together. It is not necessary to focus explicitly on the form of this TL at an advanced level.
Because advanced learners will feel patronized if the material focuses on the form.
Because they will have learned the form at previous levels.
Because it is the subtle differences in use which are the key problems with this area of language.
Learners need to understand the meaning/gist of a text before focusing on language.
It is sufficient to understand only main points of a text/read text without needing to understand everything.
Because this will help them to understand the meaning of the language.
Because this helps to develop the listening skill they need for much of real life listening.
Because learners will often read/listen to a text with a specific purpose in mind.
Because it is a useful skill to transfer from L1.
Learners need a task to focus them on the overall meaning of the text.
Because it prevents them from trying to understand every word.
Because this mirrors real life use as we usually listen to something for a specific purpose.
Learners should be encouraged to respond personally to texts. Identification with the topic is an effective aid to learning.
Because this generates interest.
Because listening is an interactive process.
Because this reduces the affective filter.
Because it is motivating.
Because this makes skills and language meaningful.
Because it is easier to talk about concrete things than it is to talk abu abstract things.
Learners need to hear/see the language in context.
So that they can see how it is used.
Because this mirrors how the L1 is learned.
Listening texts are a good way of presenting functional language.
Because this reflects what happens in real life.
Because this may encourage them to become 'language' detectives' outside the classroom.
Learners should be exposed to natural features of spoken discourse (e.g. false starts, [semi]authentic texts)
Because they may not have exposure to these features if they are not learning in an L1 environment.
Because they provide good models for learners whose use of the L2 sounds a little unnatural.
Learners need a task to help extract language examples from a text/notice the language.
Because otherwise they won't know which part of the text to focus on.
Because it ensures that they identify the correct TL quickly.
Learners benefit from categorizing language.
Cognitively engaging tasks are useful.
Because it helps them to see similarities and differences.
Because recording lexis in this way makes it easier for them to retrieve.
Because learners are motivated by such tasks.
Because cognitive engagement encourages them to process the language forms and leads to greater retention.
Because it helps learners to notice the language.
Providing prompts/examples of a language/a written record is helpful.
Because it provides scaffolding during activities.
Because it allows learners to revise what they have learned.
Learners should be encouraged to work out language use themselves/use guided discovery.
Because they can utilize the knowledge that they already have which is motivating.
Because it allows learners to see where the gaps in their knowledge are.
Because cognitive involvement enhances the learning process.
It is useful to teach language functions.
Because functional language has high surrender value for learners.
Students need different exponents for the same function. Upper intermediate students already have knowledge of basic exponents.
Because students need different/more sophisticated ways of expressing the same function to deal with more complex situations/make them more native-like.
It is important to focus on style.
Because learners need to be aware that language is appropriate in different situations.
Because it's part of knowing the meaning/use of language/particularly relevant to this target language.
It is important to focus on discourse/adjacency pairs/responses.
Because requests on their own are not so useful.
Because learners can both use them and respond to them.
Because responses are part of the use.
Inauthentic texts are useful for presenting language.
It is important for target language to be contextualized.
Listening texts are a good way of introducing language items.
Because the language can be controlled.
Because there is no defective language.
Because the examples of the target language will be clear.
Because context provides meaning.
Because it is similar to learning L1.
It is useful to have a task which doesn't focus on target language even if the prime reason for the text is linguistic.
Learners need to understand meaning of a text before focusing on target language.
Because it is important for learners to have opportunities to listen as this is often something which they need practice in.
Because it encourages learners away from focusing too soon on language items.
Because it might help activate their existing knowledge of the language.
Because an initial focus on meaning provides a context for the language.
Ensures the learners process the text for meaning before they attend to the language and will encourage good reading habits outside the classroom.
It is useful to focus on form/highlight problems of form through focused exercises/focus on accuracy.
Because students will learn better if there is an explicit focus on points of difficulty/form they need to consider.
Because it makes students aware of what they are learning.
Because many students expect an explicit language focus.
It is useful for learners to use dictionaries.
It is important to encourage learner autonomy.
Because learners will not always have a teacher on hand to help them.
Because it forces them to take responsibility for their own learning.
Because it helps their learning outside the classroom.
Visual stimuli/pictures are useful.
Because they are engaging.
Because they appeal to visual learners.
Because they are a useful way of conveying meaning.
Because they are recognizable.
Because they contain a lot of information.
It is useful for learners to do cognitively challenging tasks when focusing on the target language/to work out language patterns.
Because engaging with the language aids retention.
Because it allows the teacher to check how much learners know.
Because it is motivating for the learners to check what they know and discover what they don't know.
It is important that learners leave a lesson with their own written record of target language.
Because writing a record will aid memory.
Because the teacher can check the correctness of form student has recorded.
It is valuable to categorize language according to meaning/function.
Because categorizing language in this way makes it easier to focus on its use and appropriacy.
Because it helps learners store the language efficiently.
It is valuable to activate schemata.
Because it will help with top-down processing.
Because it will lower the affective filter by setting a context.
A jigsaw reading/info gap/opinion gap is useful.
Because it encourages learners to engage further with the text/collaborate.
Because it offers another opportunity for communicative practice.
Because it reflects what happens in real life (where we often summarize articles we've read or heard about).
Reading texts are a good way of introducing/exposing students to language items.
Because it is similar to learning L1/real life.
Because it provides a link to written form and meaning of language/lexis/vocabulary.
Learners can learn from being exposed to/using target language before it is presented.
It is good to move from implicit to explicit language focus.
Because learners may then notice how it is used.
Because learners may become curious about the target language.
Analysis of grammar through contrasting items is effective.
Because it assists with understanding meaning.
It is important to include contexts from different cultures.
Because this enables learners to engage with materials and target language.
Because it is important to present more than one English (reflects the many Englishes in the world).
Learners should extend their knowledge of language items previously met.
Because learners will need to understand different aspects of the TL.
Because learners will need to process the TL at more sophisticated levels as they progress in their learning.
Because this approach allows learners to see the gap in their knowledge.
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