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27 terms

Neuro Overview

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neuron and neuroglia
two types of nerve cells
neurons
basic transmitter of nervous system: axons and dendrites
axons
carry impulses away from cell body of neuron (only one per neuron)
dendrites
carry impulses toward cell body of neuron (numerous per neuron)
myelin
white protein lipid complex surrounding axons
nodes of Ranvier
periodic gaps in myelin along the axon producing faster and more efficient impulse conduction
Neuroglial cells
transport nutrients, wastes, gases among neurons, vascular system and CSF
neuroglial
which one do we have more of: neurons or neuroglial cells?
neuroglial cells
capable of division: most brain tumors originate from this cell type
microglia
phagocytic scavenger cells when nervous tissue is damaged
astrocytes
star shaped: provide nutrients to neurons and form scar tissue if brain is injured
oligodendeocytes
create myelin
ependymal
form lining of brain ventricles and central canal of spinal cord
depolarization
sodium IN, Potassium OUT, impulse is conducted
repolarization
cell returns to resting state
saltatory conduction
impulses hop from one node of Ranvier to another: conserves energy
presynaptic terminal
either inhibitory or excitatory: secrete neurotransmitters
synaptic cleft
microscopic space neurotransmitter has to cross to get from presynaptic terminal to postsynaptic membrane
postsynaptic membrane
effector cell or neuron that is the reciever of the neurotransmitter (part of the synapse)
vertebral and internal carotid arteries
two sets of arteries that supply blood to the brain
circle of Willis
name for place where two arterial systems connect at base of brain
middle cerebral artery
principal blood supply of parietal lobe; 90% strokes
cerebral veins
no muscle layer or valves: dump blood into venous sinuses
glucose
brain cannot store this
confusion will develop
if cerebral glucose drops to less than 70...
coma will develop
if cerebral glucose drops to less than 20
autoregulation
ability of cerebral blood vessels to adjust their diameter to arterial pressure changes within the brain