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AN EXOTIC TYPE OF DIAMOND
An exotic type of diamond may have come to Earth from outer space, scientists say. Called carbonado or ―black diamonds, the (mysterious/ complex/ complicated/ difficult) stones are found in Brazil and the Central African Republic. They are unusual for being the color or charcoal and full of frothy bubbles. The diamonds, which can weigh in at more than 3,600 carats, can also have a face that looks like melted glass.
Because of their (beautiful/ odd/ ugly/ weird) appearance, the diamonds are unsuitable as gemstones. But they do have industrial applications and were used in the drill bits that helped dig the Panama Canal. Now a team led by Stephen Haggerty of Florida International University in Miami has presented a new study (suggesting/ imposing/ declaring) that the odd stones were brought to Earth by an asteroid billions of years ago. The findings were published online in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters on December 20.
Explosive Theory: The scientists exposed polished pieces of carbonado to extremely intense infrared light. The test revealed the presence of many hydrogen-carbon bonds, indicating that the diamonds probably formed in a hydrogen-rich environment—such as that found in space. The diamonds also showed strong similarities to tiny nanodiamonds, which are frequently found in meteorites. "They're not (identical/ similar/alike/ same)," Haggerty said, "but they're very similar. Astrophysicists, he added, have developed theories predicting that nanodiamonds form easily in the titanic stellar explosions called supernovas, which scatter debris through interstellar space. The deposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil, he said, (probably/ obviously/ definitely/completely) come from the impact of a diamond-rich asteroid billions of years ago, when South America and Africa were joined.
An exotic type of diamond may have come to Earth from outer space, scientists say. Called carbonado or ―black diamonds, the (MYSTERIOUS/ complex/ complicated/ difficult) stones are found in Brazil and the Central African Republic. They are unusual for being the color or charcoal and full of frothy bubbles. The diamonds, which can weigh in at more than 3,600 carats, can also have a face that looks like melted glass.
Because of their (beautiful/ ODD/ ugly/ weird) appearance, the diamonds are unsuitable as gemstones. But they do have industrial applications and were used in the drill bits that helped dig the Panama Canal. Now a team led by Stephen Haggerty of Florida International University in Miami has presented a new study (SUGGESTING/ imposing/ declaring) that the odd stones were brought to Earth by an asteroid billions of years ago. The findings were published online in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters on December 20.
Explosive Theory: The scientists exposed polished pieces of carbonado to extremely intense infrared light. The test revealed the presence of many hydrogen-carbon bonds, indicating that the diamonds probably formed in a hydrogen-rich environment—such as that found in space. The diamonds also showed strong similarities to tiny nanodiamonds, which are frequently found in meteorites. "They're not (IDENTICAL/ similar/alike/ same)," Haggerty said, "but they're very similar. Astrophysicists, he added, have developed theories predicting that nanodiamonds form easily in the titanic stellar explosions called supernovas, which scatter debris through interstellar space. The deposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil, he said, (PROBABLY/ obviously/ definitely/completely) come from the impact of a diamond-rich asteroid billions of years ago, when South America and Africa were joined.
JAPANESE USAGE
In recent years, an eccentric mix of English, German and French has entered Japanese usage. (All the same/Likewise/For instance/Furthermore), a "Kariya" woman is a career woman, and a "manshon" is an apartment. This increasing use of katakana, or unique Japanese version of Western words, and the younger generation's more casual use of the Japanese language are causing worry in government circles. (As a result/On the contrary/Unless/In other words), an official panel is proposing to publish a manual on how to speak proper Japanese. Foreign words become katakana Japanese (although/whereas/because/so that) no existing Japanese words could quite capture a specific meaning or feeling. (Next/Consequently/However/In fact), they don't always retain the same meaning they had in their original language. When the word "cool" traveled east, all of its English connotations did not make the journey. A kuru person in Japan is someone who is calm and never gets upset. (Besides/Nevertheless/For example/Similarity), a hotto person is one who is easily excitable, but not necessarily a popular person or personality of the moment. Researching and monitoring changes in the Japanese language, including the influx of foreign words, has been the responsibility of the National Institute of Japanese Language, established in 1948. According to its president, Seiju Sugito, since the late 1950s the use of Katakana words has tripled. Older people are especially alarmed by this trend. For one thing, they find many of these new words are difficult to understand. (In addition /As a consequence/On the other hand/In conclusion), their casual and ready acceptance by the younger generation has come in tandem with its increasing tendency not to use the more respectful Japanese grammatical forms.
In recent years, an eccentric mix of English, German and French has entered Japanese usage. (All the same/Likewise/FOR INSTANCE/Furthermore), a "Kariya" woman is a career woman, and a "manshon" is an apartment. This increasing use of katakana, or unique Japanese version of Western words, and the younger generation's more casual use of the Japanese language are causing worry in government circles. (AS A RESULT/On the contrary/Unless/In other words), an official panel is proposing to publish a manual on how to speak proper Japanese. Foreign words become katakana Japanese (although/whereas/BECAUSE/so that) no existing Japanese words could quite capture a specific meaning or feeling. (Next/Consequently/HOWEVER/In fact), they don't always retain the same meaning they had in their original language. When the word "cool" traveled east, all of its English connotations did not make the journey. A kuru person in Japan is someone who is calm and never gets upset. (Besides/Nevertheless/For example/SIMILARLY), a hotto person is one who is easily excitable, but not necessarily a popular person or personality of the moment. Researching and monitoring changes in the Japanese language, including the influx of foreign words, has been the responsibility of the National Institute of Japanese Language, established in 1948. According to its president, Seiju Sugito, since the late 1950s the use of Katakana words has tripled. Older people are especially alarmed by this trend. For one thing, they find many of these new words are difficult to understand. (IN ADDITION /As a consequence/On the other hand/In conclusion), their casual and ready acceptance by the younger generation has come in tandem with its increasing tendency not to use the more respectful Japanese grammatical forms.
AMOUNT OF SLEEP
The amount of sleep you need depends on many (ages/factors/thing/category), especially your age. Newborns sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day and preschool children should sleep between 10 and 12 hours. Older children and teens need at least nine hours to be well rested. For most adults, seven to eight hours a night appears to the best amount of sleep. However, for some people, "enough sleep" may be as few as five hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep.
As you get older, your sleeping (patterns/habit/time/hour/sometimes) change. Older adults tend to sleep more lightly and awaken more frequently in the night than younger adults. This can have many causes including medical conditions and medications used to treat them. But there's no evidence that older adults need less sleep than younger adults. Getting enough sleep is important to your health because it boosts your (circulatory/immune/nervous/sleeping) system, which makes your body better able to fight disease. Sleep is necessary for your nervous system to work properly. Too little sleep makes you drowsy and unable to concentrate. It also impairs memory and physical performance.
So how many hours of sleep are enough for you? Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day — even during boring activities — you are not getting enough sleep. Also, quality of sleep is just as (important/much/difficult/frequent/trivial) as quantity. People whose sleep is frequently interrupted or cut short are not getting quality sleep. If you experience frequent daytime sleepiness, even after increasing the amount of quality sleep you get, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to (identify/determines/help/solves) the cause of sleep problems and offer advice on how to get a better night's sleep.
The amount of sleep you need depends on many (ages/FACTORS/thing/category), especially your age. Newborns sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day and preschool children should sleep between 10 and 12 hours. Older children and teens need at least nine hours to be well rested. For most adults, seven to eight hours a night appears to the best amount of sleep. However, for some people, "enough sleep" may be as few as five hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep.
As you get older, your sleeping (PATTERNS/habit/time/hour/sometimes) change. Older adults tend to sleep more lightly and awaken more frequently in the night than younger adults. This can have many causes including medical conditions and medications used to treat them. But there's no evidence that older adults need less sleep than younger adults. Getting enough sleep is important to your health because it boosts your (circulatory/IMMUNE/nervous/sleeping) system, which makes your body better able to fight disease. Sleep is necessary for your nervous system to work properly. Too little sleep makes you drowsy and unable to concentrate. It also impairs memory and physical performance.
So how many hours of sleep are enough for you? Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day — even during boring activities — you are not getting enough sleep. Also, quality of sleep is just as (IMPORTANT/much/difficult/frequent/trivial) as quantity. People whose sleep is frequently interrupted or cut short are not getting quality sleep. If you experience frequent daytime sleepiness, even after increasing the amount of quality sleep you get, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to (IDENTIFY/determines/help/solves) the cause of sleep problems and offer advice on how to get a better night's sleep.
CHILDREN
Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers around the world who (had been/were/has been/are) doing the same. He found, to put it most succinctly, that children don't think like grownups. After thousands of (interactions/discussions/treatments/communications) with young people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic. Einstein called it a discovery "so simple that only a genius could have thought of it". Piaget's insight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide ranging and remarkably prolific research career that spanned nearly 75 years, from his first scientific publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget (has developed/had developed/developed/was developing) several new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitive theory and that came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not an educational reformer, he (created/championed/generated/invented) a way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today's education-reform movements. It was a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of "noble savages" and "cannibals" by modern anthropology. One might say that Piaget was the first to take children's thinking seriously.
Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers around the world who (had been/WERE/has been/are) doing the same. He found, to put it most succinctly, that children don't think like grownups. After thousands of (INTERACTIONS/discussions/treatments/communications) with young people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic. Einstein called it a discovery "so simple that only a genius could have thought of it". Piaget's insight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide ranging and remarkably prolific research career that spanned nearly 75 years, from his first scientific publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget (has developed/HAD DEVELOPED/developed/was developing) several new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitive theory and that came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not an educational reformer, he (created/CHAMPIONED/generated/invented) a way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today's education-reform movements. It was a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of "noble savages" and "cannibals" by modern anthropology. One might say that Piaget was the first to take children's thinking seriously.
20 LEONARD LAUDER
Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she "was growing a nice little business." And that it is. A little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year (achieved/ gained/grew/hold) to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family's shares are worth more than $6 billion. But early on, there wasn't a burgeoning business, there weren't houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estee Lauder story (but/because/when/and) it's a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She (has started/had started/starts/started) her enterprise by selling skin creams (led/controlled/concocted/managed) by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. No doubt the potions were good--Estee Lauder was a quality fanatic--but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.
Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she "was growing a nice little business." And that it is. A little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year (achieved/ gained/GREW/hold) to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family's shares are worth more than $6 billion. But early on, there wasn't a burgeoning business, there weren't houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estee Lauder story (but/BECAUSE/when/and) it's a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She (has started/had started/starts/STARTED) her enterprise by selling skin creams (led/controlled/CONCOCTED/managed) by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. No doubt the potions were good--Estee Lauder was a quality fanatic--but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.
21 DRESS FOR SUCCESS
It's probably one of the most overused phrases in job-hunting, but also one of the most underutilized by jobseekers: dress for success, in job-hunting, first (feeling/ impression/ impact) are critical. Remember, you are marketing a product — yourself — to a potential employer, and the first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effort to have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressing properly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge
and a (absolute/ negative/ positive) first impression. Should you be judged by what you wear? Perhaps not, but the reality is, of course, that you are judged. Throughout the entire job-seeking process employers use short-cuts - heuristics or rules of thumb - to save time. With cover letters, it's the opening paragraph and a quick scan of your qualifications. With resumes, it is a quick scan of your accomplishments. With the job interview, it's how you're dressed that sets the (intonation/ accent/ tone/ rhythm) of the interview. How should you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but you should also try and do a little investigating of your (prospective/ coming/ approaching/ expected) employer so that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If you overdress (which is rare but can happen) or underdress (the more likely scenario), the potential employer may feel that you don't care enough about the job.
It's probably one of the most overused phrases in job-hunting, but also one of the most underutilized by jobseekers: dress for success, in job-hunting, first (feeling/ IMPRESSION/ impact) are critical. Remember, you are marketing a product — yourself — to a potential employer, and the first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effort to have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressing properly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge
and a (absolute/ negative/ POSITIVE) first impression. Should you be judged by what you wear? Perhaps not, but the reality is, of course, that you are judged. Throughout the entire job-seeking process employers use short-cuts - heuristics or rules of thumb - to save time. With cover letters, it's the opening paragraph and a quick scan of your qualifications. With resumes, it is a quick scan of your accomplishments. With the job interview, it's how you're dressed that sets the (intonation/ accent/ TONE/ rhythm) of the interview. How should you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but you should also try and do a little investigating of your (PROSPECTIVE/ coming/ approaching/ expected) employer so that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If you overdress (which is rare but can happen) or underdress (the more likely scenario), the potential employer may feel that you don't care enough about the job.
22 CHOMOLUNGMA
Called Chomolungma ("goddess mother of the world") in Tibet and Sagarmatha ("goddess of the sky") in Nepal, Mount Everest once went by the pedestrian name of Peak XV among Westerners. That was before (purveyors/surveillance/persuasion/surveyors) established that it was the highest mountain on Earth, a fact that came as something of a surprise—Peak XV had seemed lost in the crowd of other formidable Himalayan peaks, many of which gave the (illusion/allusion/anticipation/persuation) of greater height.In 1852 the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India measured Everest's elevation as 29,002 feet above sea level. This figure remained the officially (excepted/incepted/intercepted/accepted) height for more than one hundred years. In 1955 it was adjusted by a mere 26 feet to 29,028 (8,848 m).The mountain received its official name in 1865 in honor of Sir George Everest, the British Surveyor General from 1830—1843 who had mapped the Indian subcontinent. He had some (reservations/applications/implications/rejections) about having his name bestowed on the peak, arguing that the mountain should retain its local appellation, the standard policy of geographical societies. Before the Survey of India, a number of other mountains ranked supreme in the eyes of the world. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Andean peak Chimborazo was considered the highest. At a relatively unremarkable 20,561 feet (6,310 m), it is in fact nowhere near the highest, (surpassed/reduces/surmises/transposed) by about thirty other Andean peaks and several dozen in the Himalayas. In 1809, the Himalayan peak Dhaulagiri (26,810 ft.; 8,172 m) was declared the ultimate, only to be shunted aside in 1840 by Kanchenjunga (28,208 ft.; 8,598 m), which today ranks third. Everest's status has been unrivaled for the last century-and-a-half, but not without a few threats.
Called Chomolungma ("goddess mother of the world") in Tibet and Sagarmatha ("goddess of the sky") in Nepal, Mount Everest once went by the pedestrian name of Peak XV among Westerners. That was before (purveyors/surveillance/persuasion/SURVEYORS) established that it was the highest mountain on Earth, a fact that came as something of a surprise—Peak XV had seemed lost in the crowd of other formidable Himalayan peaks, many of which gave the (ILLUSION/allusion/anticipation/persuation) of greater height.In 1852 the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India measured Everest's elevation as 29,002 feet above sea level. This figure remained the officially (excepted/incepted/intercepted/ACCEPTED) height for more than one hundred years. In 1955 it was adjusted by a mere 26 feet to 29,028 (8,848 m).The mountain received its official name in 1865 in honor of Sir George Everest, the British Surveyor General from 1830—1843 who had mapped the Indian subcontinent. He had some (RESERVATIONS/applications/implications/rejections) about having his name bestowed on the peak, arguing that the mountain should retain its local appellation, the standard policy of geographical societies. Before the Survey of India, a number of other mountains ranked supreme in the eyes of the world. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Andean peak Chimborazo was considered the highest. At a relatively unremarkable 20,561 feet (6,310 m), it is in fact nowhere near the highest, (SURPASSED/reduces/surmises/transposed) by about thirty other Andean peaks and several dozen in the Himalayas. In 1809, the Himalayan peak Dhaulagiri (26,810 ft.; 8,172 m) was declared the ultimate, only to be shunted aside in 1840 by Kanchenjunga (28,208 ft.; 8,598 m), which today ranks third. Everest's status has been unrivaled for the last century-and-a-half, but not without a few threats.
23 FOREIGN STUDENTS' ENGLISH SKILLS
Federal Education Minister Julie Bishop says she has seen no evidence that foreign students (are graduating/graduate/graduated/has been graduated) from Australian universities with poor English skills. Research by Monash University academic Bob Birrell (found/has found/had found/has been found) a third of foreign students are graduating without a competent level of English. But Ms. Bishop says Australian universities only enroll foreign students (once/because/but/and/that) they have achieved international standards of language (efficiency/fluency/proficiency/progressive). "This has been an extraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on our universities," she said. "International students must meet international benchmarks in English language in order to get a place at a university in Australia and they can't get into university without reaching that international standard."University of Canberra vice chancellor Roger Dean also says international students are required to sit an English test (after/before/once/when) being admitted to nearly all Australian universities. "There are, of course, intercultural difficulties as well as language difficulties," he said. "There are, of course, also many Australian students who don't speak such fantastically good English either. So we're trying to push the standard even higher than present but it's a very useful one already." Ms Bishop says Australia's university system has high standards. "I've seen no evidence to suggest that students are not able to complete their courses because they're failing in English yet they're being passed by the universities," she said. "I've not seen any evidence to back that up. International education is one of our largest exports, it's our fourth largest export and it's in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standards because their reputation is at stake."
Federal Education Minister Julie Bishop says she has seen no evidence that foreign students (ARE GRADUATING/graduate/graduated/has been graduated) from Australian universities with poor English skills. Research by Monash University academic Bob Birrell (found/HAS FOUND/had found/has been found) a third of foreign students are graduating without a competent level of English. But Ms. Bishop says Australian universities only enroll foreign students (ONCE/because/but/and/that) they have achieved international standards of language (efficiency/fluency/PROFICIENCY/progressive). "This has been an extraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on our universities," she said. "International students must meet international benchmarks in English language in order to get a place at a university in Australia and they can't get into university without reaching that international standard."University of Canberra vice chancellor Roger Dean also says international students are required to sit an English test (after/BEFORE/once/when) being admitted to nearly all Australian universities. "There are, of course, intercultural difficulties as well as language difficulties," he said. "There are, of course, also many Australian students who don't speak such fantastically good English either. So we're trying to push the standard even higher than present but it's a very useful one already." Ms Bishop says Australia's university system has high standards. "I've seen no evidence to suggest that students are not able to complete their courses because they're failing in English yet they're being passed by the universities," she said. "I've not seen any evidence to back that up. International education is one of our largest exports, it's our fourth largest export and it's in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standards because their reputation is at stake."
26 INVASION OF NON-INDIGENOUS PLANTS
The invasion of non-indigenous plants is considered a primary threat to integrity and function of ecosystems. However, there is little quantitative or (escritional/experimental/aberrational/aboriginal) evidence for ecosystem impacts of invasive species. Justifications for control are often based on potential, but not presently realized, recognized or quantified, negative impacts. Should lack of scientific certainty about impacts of non-indigenous species result in postponing measures to prevent degradation? Recently, management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), has been criticized for (1) lack of evidence demonstrating negative impacts of L. salicaria, and (2) management using biocontrol for lack of evidence documenting the failure of conventional control methods. Although little quantitative evidence on negative impacts on native wetland biota and wetland function was available at the onset of the control program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that the invasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater wetlands alters (decomposition/decommissions/decompression/decompensation) rates and nutrient cycling, leads to reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seed output of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat (suitability/compatibility/unsuitability/correctness) for specialized wetland bird species such as black terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marsh wrens. Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), have continuously failed to (curb/instruct/crop/encourages) (han che su lay lan cua) the spread of purple loosestrife or to provide satisfactory control. Although a number of generalist insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife, wetland habitat specialists are excluded by (encroachment/evolution/violation/retreat) (giam tu tu cai gi) of L. salicaria. We conclude that (1) negative ecosystem impacts of purple loosestrife in North America justify control of the species and that (2) (detrimental/despotical/deprival/denormal) effects of purple loosestrife on wetland systems and biota and the potential benefits of control outweigh potential risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents.
The invasion of non-indigenous plants is considered a primary threat to integrity and function of ecosystems. However, there is little quantitative or (escritional/EXPERIMENTAL/ aberrational/aboriginal) evidence for ecosystem impacts of invasive species. Justifications for control are often based on potential, but not presently realized, recognized or quantified, negative impacts. Should lack of scientific certainty about impacts of non-indigenous species result in postponing measures to prevent degradation? Recently, management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), has been criticized for (1) lack of evidence demonstrating negative impacts of L. salicaria, and (2) management using biocontrol for lack of evidence documenting the failure of conventional control methods. Although little quantitative evidence on negative impacts on native wetland biota and wetland function was available at the onset of the control program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that the invasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater wetlands alters (DECOMPOSITION = sự phân huỷ /decommissions/ decompression/decompensation) rates and nutrient cycling, leads to reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seed output of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat (SUITABILITY = sự thích hợp /compatibility/ unsuitability/correctness) for specialized wetland bird species such as black terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marsh wrens. Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), have continuously failed to (CURB = hạn chế /instruct/ crop/encourages) (han che su lay lan cua) the spread of purple loosestrife or to provide satisfactory control. Although a number of generalist insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife, wetland habitat specialists are excluded by (ENCROACHMENT = sự xâm lấn /evolution/ violation/retreat) (giam tu tu cai gi) of L. salicaria. We conclude that (1) negative ecosystem impacts of purple loosestrife in North America justify control of the species and that (2) (DETRIMENTAL/despotical/deprival/denormal) effects of purple loosestrife on wetland systems and biota and the potential benefits of control outweigh potential risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents.
29 SALES JOBS
Sales jobs allow for a great deal of discretionary time and effort on the part of the sales representatives - especially when compared with managerial, manufacturing, and service jobs. Most sales representatives work independently and outside the immediate presence of their sales managers. Therefore, some form of goals needs to be in place (as motive and guide/should motivate and guide/to help motivate and guide/as helping motive and guide) their performance. Sales personnel are not the only professionals with performance goals or quotas. Health care professionals operating in clinics have daily, weekly, and monthly goals in terms of patient visits. Service personnel are assigned a number of service calls they (can perform/must perform/often are performed/might be performing) during a set time period. Production workers in manufacturing have output goals. So, why are achieving sales goals or quotas such a big deal? The answer to this question can be found by examining how a firm's other departments are affected by how well the company's salespeople achieve their performance goals. The success of the business (hinges on/is set at/lasts until/look ahead) the successful sales of its products and services. Consider all the planning, the financial, production and marketing efforts that go into (describing how/producing what/constructing how much/analyzing where) the sales force sells. Everyone depends on the sales force to sell the company's products and services and they eagerly anticipate knowing things are going. hinges on = depends on]
Sales jobs allow for a great deal of discretionary time and effort on the part of the sales representatives - especially when compared with managerial, manufacturing, and service jobs. Most sales representatives work independently and outside the immediate presence of their sales managers. Therefore, some form of goals needs to be in place (AS MOTIVE = động cơ AND GUIDE/should motivate and guide/to help motivate and guide/as helping motive and guide) their performance. Sales personnel are not the only professionals with performance goals or quotas. Health care professionals operating in clinics have daily, weekly, and monthly goals in terms of patient visits. Service personnel are assigned a number of service calls they (can perform/MUST PERFORM/often are performed/might be performing) during a set time period. Production workers in manufacturing have output goals. So, why are achieving sales goals or quotas such a big deal? The answer to this question can be found by examining how a firm's other departments are affected by how well the company's salespeople achieve their performance goals. The success of the business (HINGES ON = Xoay quanh, depends on /is set at/lasts until/look ahead) the successful sales of its products and services. Consider all the planning, the financial, production and marketing efforts that go into (describing how/PRODUCING WHAT/constructing how much/analyzing where) the sales force sells. Everyone depends on the sales force to sell the company's products and services and they eagerly anticipate knowing things are going. hinges on = depends on]
38 SPANISH
If after years of Spanish classes, some people still find it impossible to understand some native speakers, they should not worry. This does not (necessarily/usually/only/particularly) mean the lessons were wasted. Millions of Spanish speakers use neither standard Latin American Spanish nor Castilian, which predominate in U.S. schools. The confusion is partly political-the Spanish-speaking world is very diverse. Spanish is the language of 19 separate countries and Puerto Rico. This means that there is no one standard dialect. The most common Spanish dialect taught in the U.S. is standard Latin American. It is sometimes called "Highland" Spanish since it is generally spoken in the (mountainous/ rocky/ hidden/coastal) areas of Latin America. While each country retains its own (accents/ thoughts/infections/authority) and has some unique vocabulary, residents of countries such as Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia generally speak Latin American Spanish, especially in urban centers. This dialect is noted for its (pronunciation/ collection/ remembering/elucidation) of each letter and its strong "r" sounds. This Spanish was spoken in Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and was brought to the Americas by the early colonists. However, the Spanish of Madrid and of northern Spain, called Castilian, developed (characteristics/moralities / problems/distinguishes) that never reached the New World. These include the pronunciation of "ci" and "ce" as "th." In Madrid, "gracias" (thank you) becomes "gratheas" (as opposed to "gras-see-as" in Latin America.) Another difference is the use of the word "vosotros" (you all, or you guys) as the informal form of "ustedes" in Spain. Castilian sounds to Latin Americans much like British English sounds to U.S. residents.
If after years of Spanish classes, some people still find it impossible to understand some native speakers, they should not worry. This does not (NECESSARILY/usually/ only/particularly) mean the lessons were wasted. Millions of Spanish speakers use neither standard Latin American Spanish nor Castilian, which predominate in U.S. schools. The confusion is partly political-the Spanish-speaking world is very diverse. Spanish is the language of 19 separate countries and Puerto Rico. This means that there is no one standard dialect. The most common Spanish dialect taught in the U.S. is standard Latin American. It is sometimes called "Highland" Spanish since it is generally spoken in the (MOUNTAINOUS/ rocky/ hidden/coastal) areas of Latin America. While each country retains its own (ACCENTS/ thoughts/infections/authority) and has some unique vocabulary, residents of countries such as Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia generally speak Latin American Spanish, especially in urban centers. This dialect is noted for its (PRONUNCIATION/ collection/ remembering/elucidation) of each letter and its strong "r" sounds. This Spanish was spoken in Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and was brought to the Americas by the early colonists. However, the Spanish of Madrid and of northern Spain, called Castilian, developed (CHARACTERISTICS/moralities / problems/distinguishes) that never reached the New World. These include the pronunciation of "ci" and "ce" as "th." In Madrid, "gracias" (thank you) becomes "gratheas" (as opposed to "gras-see-as" in Latin America.) Another difference is the use of the word "vosotros" (you all, or you guys) as the informal form of "ustedes" in Spain. Castilian sounds to Latin Americans much like British English sounds to U.S. residents.
39 EIFFEL TOWER
The Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1889. It was built for the World's Fair to (demonstrate / implicate/suggest/insinuate) that iron could be as strong as stone while being infinitely lighter. And in fact the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonry Washington Monument and yet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted every seven years with 50 tons of dark brown paint. Called "the father of the skyscraper," the Home Insurance Building, (constructed/renovated/ devised/invented) in Chicago in 1885 (and demolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and 10 stories. It was the first building to effectively employ a supporting (skeleton/ engine/ceiling/concrete) of steel beams and columns, allowing it to have many more windows than traditional masonry structures. But this new construction method made people worry that the building would fall down, leading the city to halt construction until they could (investigate/ exonerate/ ameliorate/consecrate) the structure's safety. In 1929, auto tycoon Walter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank of Manhattan Trust Company to build the world's tallest skyscraper. Just when it looked like the bank had captured the (coveted/ meaningless/ royal/informal) title, workers at the Chrysler Building jacked a thin spire hidden inside the building through the top of the roof to win the contest (subsequently losing the title four months later to the Empire State Building). Chrysler also decorated his building to mirror his cars, with hubcaps, mudguards, and hood ornaments.
The Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1889. It was built for the World's Fair to (DEMONSTRATE / implicate/suggest/insinuate) that iron could be as strong as stone while being infinitely lighter. And in fact the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonry Washington Monument and yet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted every seven years with 50 tons of dark brown paint. Called "the father of the skyscraper," the Home Insurance Building, (CONSTRUCTED/renovated/ devised/invented) in Chicago in 1885 (and demolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and 10 stories. It was the first building to effectively employ a supporting (SKELETON = bộ khung / engine/ceiling/concrete) of steel beams and columns, allowing it to have many more windows than traditional masonry structures. But this new construction method made people worry that the building would fall down, leading the city to halt construction until they could (INVESTIGATE/ exonerate/ ameliorate/consecrate) the structure's safety. In 1929, auto tycoon Walter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank of Manhattan Trust Company to build the world's tallest skyscraper. Just when it looked like the bank had captured the (COVETED = strongly desired by many / meaningless/ royal/informal) title, workers at the Chrysler Building jacked a thin spire hidden inside the building through the top of the roof to win the contest (subsequently losing the title four months later to the Empire State Building). Chrysler also decorated his building to mirror his cars, with hubcaps, mudguards, and hood ornaments.
40 NEW MODES OF ASSESSMENT
The first section of the book covers new modes of assessment. In Chapter 1, Kimbell (Goldsmith College, London) responds to (critical/ criticizing/ critic/ criticisms) of design programs as formalistic and conventional, stating that a focus on risk-taking rather than hard work in design innovation is equally problematic. His research contains three parts that include preliminary exploration of design innovation qualities, investigation of resulting classroom practices, and development of evidence-based assessment. The assessment he describes is presented in the form of a structured worksheet, which includes a collaborative (element/ substance/ situation/ environ) and digital photographs, in story format. Such a device encourages stimulating ideas, but does not recognize students as design (innovators/ innovations/ innovate/ innovated). The assessment sheet includes holistic impressions as well as details about ―having, growing, and proving‖ ideas. (Formal/ Conventional/ Colloquial/ Unofficial) judgments are evident in terms such as ―wow‖ and yawn‖ and reward the quality and quantity of ideas with the term, ―sparkiness‖ (p. 28), which fittingly is a pun as the model project was to design light bulb packaging. In addition, the assessment focuses on the process of optimizing or complexity control as well as proving ideas with thoughtful criticism and not just generation of novel ideas. The definitions for qualities such as ―technical‖ and ―aesthetic‖ pertaining to users, are too narrow and ill-defined. The author provides (examples/ stimulus/ experiences/ systems) of the project, its features and structures, students' notes and judgments, and their sketches and hotographs of finished light bulb packages, in the Appendix.
The first section of the book covers new modes of assessment. In Chapter 1, Kimbell (Goldsmith College, London) responds to (critical/ criticizing/ critic/ CRITICISMS = Lời phê bình) of design programs as formalistic and conventional, stating that a focus on risk-taking rather than hard work in design innovation is equally problematic. His research contains three parts that include preliminary exploration of design innovation qualities, investigation of resulting classroom practices, and development of evidence-based assessment. The assessment he describes is presented in the form of a structured worksheet, which includes a collaborative (ELEMENT/ substance/ situation/ environ) and digital photographs, in story format. Such a device encourages stimulating ideas, but does not recognize students as design (INNOVATORS/ innovations/ innovate/ innovated). The assessment sheet includes holistic impressions as well as details about ―having, growing, and proving ideas. (Formal/ Conventional/ COLLOQUIAL= Thông tục, informal / Unofficial) judgments are evident in terms such as ―wow and ―yawn and reward the quality and quantity of ideas with the term, ―sparkiness (p. 28), which fittingly is a pun as the model project was to design light bulb packaging. In addition, the assessment focuses on the process of optimizing or complexity control as well as proving ideas with thoughtful criticism and not just generation of novel ideas. The definitions for qualities such as ―technical‖ and ―aesthetic‖ pertaining to users, are too narrow and ill-defined. The author provides (EXAMPLES/ stimulus/ experiences/ systems) of the project, its features and structures, students' notes and judgments, and their sketches and hotographs of finished light bulb packages, in the Appendix.
44 BURGERS
Drive down any highway, and you'll see a proliferation of chain restaurants - most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you'll see McDonald's golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee's, and Wendy's, the ―big four‖ of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of (claiming/forcing/defying/yielding) the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald's No.1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No.2. Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three (contenders/applicants/contestants/participants) have increase. The decline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be (rectified/disorganized/ surpassed/enacted) before a unified, long-term strategy can put in place. The (importance/vitality/impotence/complacency) of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer's order must communicate the same message as Burger King's famous tagline, ―Have it your way,‖ or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more (reliable/dubious/exhaustive/impervious).
Drive down any highway, and you'll see a proliferation of chain restaurants - most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you'll see McDonald's golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee's, and Wendy's, the ―big four‖ of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of (CLAIMING/forcing/ defying/yielding) the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald's No.1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No.2. Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three (CONTENDERS/applicants/ contestants/participants) have increase. The decline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be (RECTIFIED/disorganized/ surpassed/enacted) before a unified, long-term strategy can put in place. The (IMPORTANCE/vitality/ impotence/complacency) of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer's order must communicate the same message as Burger King's famous tagline, ―Have it your way,‖ or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more (RELIABLE/dubious/ exhaustive/impervious).