80 terms

Living Environment Regents Prep

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observations
Any information that is collected with
any of the senses
data
The results of specific trials or tests
completed during experiments
hypothesis
A statement that predicts a relationship between cause and effect in a way that can be tested
sexual reproduction
a method of reproduction that involves
two parents producing offspring that
are genetically different from either
parent
asexual reproduction
a method of reproduction in which all
the genes passed on to the offspring
come from a single individual or parent
stimulus
any change in the environment that
causes an organism to react
homeostasis
the ability of an organism to maintain a
stable internal environment even when
the external environment changes
evolution
the process by which species have
changed over time
nucleus
a large structure within a cell that
controls the cell's metabolism and
stores genetic information, including
chromosomes and DNA
amino acid
any one of several building blocks of
protein
enzyme
proteins that speed up the rate of
chemical reactions in living things
ecology
The study of how living things interact
with each other and with their
environment
species
A group of organisms that share certain
characteristics and can mate with one
another, producing fertile offspring
population
All the individuals of a single species
that live in a specific area
community
A combination of all the different
populations that live and interact in the
same environment
ecosystem
All the living and non-living things that
interact in a specific area; a subdivision
of the environment
autotroph
An organism that produces its own
food; the source of energy for all other
living things on Earth
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own
food; a consumer
producer
An organism that makes its own food
from light energy and inorganic
materials
consumer
An organisms that obtains it's energy
from producers
decomposer
An organism, generally a bacteria or
fungus, that consumes dead organisms
and organic waste
food chain
A representation that identifies the
specific relationships among organisms
food web
A representation of many
interconnected food chains that shows
the feeding relationships among
producers, consumers, and
decomposers
biotic
The living parts of the environment
abiotic
Nonliving parts of the environment
habitat
The place where a plant or animal lives
niche
The specific role played by an
organism or a population of organisms
in the ecosystem
ecological succession
The process by which an existing
community is replaced by another
community
limiting factor
Any factor in the environment that
limits the size of a population
biodiversity
The variety of species in an area
extinction
the disappearance of all members of a
species from earth
global warming
An increase in Earth's average surface
temperature caused by an increase in
greenhouse gases
cell
the basic unit of structure and function
that makes up all organisms
chromosome
a thick threadlike structure that
contains genetic information in the
form of DNA
ribosome
tiny structures in the cell that are the
sites of protein production
vacuole
storage sacs within the cytoplasm of a
cell that may contain either wastes or
useful materials, such as water or food
mitochondrion
pod-shaped organelles that contain
enzymes used to extract energy from
nutrients
chloroplast
green organelles that contain
chlorophyll; where photosynthesis
takes place
cell membrane
the thin boundary between the cell and
its environment
equilibrium
the constant small corrections that
normally occur to keep an organism's
internal environment within the limits
needed for survival
tissue
a group of specialized cells that
perform a specific function
organ
a body structure made of different
kinds of tissues combined to perform a
specific function
organ system
several organs that work together to
perform a major function in the body
cellular respiration
the process in which nutrients are
broken apart, releasing the chemical
energy stored in them
mitosis
the process that divides the cell's
nucleus into two, each with a complete
set of genetic material from the parent
cell
meiosis
the process that results in the
production of sex cells (sperm and egg)
fertilization
the process that combines a sperm cell
and an egg cell
trait
a characteristic that is passed from
parent to offspring through the genes
gene
a segment of DNA (on a chromosome)
that contains the code for a specific
trait
mutation
any alteration in the sequence of DNA
selective breeding
the process of choosing a few
organisms with desirable traits to serve
as the parents of the next generation
genetic engineering
a set of technologies that humans use to
alter the genetic instructions of an
organism by substituting DNA
molecules
fossil record
a collection of fossils used to represent
Earth's history
natural selection
the process by which the organisms
that are best adapted to a specific
environment survive and produce more
offspring that organisms that are not as
well adapted
relative dating
determining the order of past events without determining absolute age
period
length of time
order
families sharing a set of similar characteristics
bacteria
any one of many single-celled
organisms without a distinct nucleus
fungi
the kingdom of organisms that are
mostly multicellular, have cell walls
made of chitin, and are heterotrophic
virus
a nonliving particle of protein and
genetic material that reproduces by
invading the cell of a living organism
pathogen
an organism that invades the body,
causing disease
vaccine
a substance made of weakened, killed,
or partial pathogens and designed to
protect the body from future invasions
of that pathogen
antibiotic
medicine that inhibits the growth of bacteria
leaf
flattened structure attached to stem where photosynthesis occurs
stem
the mains stalk of a plant
seed
product of plan that contains seeds
embryo
an organism in the early stages of
development
guard cell
specialized cells that control the
opening and closing of the pores on the
surface of a leaf
hormone
a chemical produced in the endocrine
glands
crop
food that is grown
placenta
the organ that enables nutrients and
oxygen to pass from the mother's blood
to the fetus, and waste products to pass
from the fetus to the mother's blood
communication
exchange of information between organs
drug
substance that has an effect when introduced to the body
fat
compound made of fatty acid molecules
liver
large organ involved in neutralizing toxins
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
zygote
the cell that results from the joining of
the egg and sperm
fetus
the unborn, developing young of an
animal during the later stages of
development
disease
a condition, other than injury, that
prevents the body from working as it
should
antigen
a molecule found on the outer surfaces
of cells that the immune system
recognizes as either part of the body or
an outside invader