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Anatomy Chapter #7 Axial/Appendicular Skeleton
Terms in this set (85)
What 5 areas makes up the Axial Skeleton?
Skull, Ear ossicles, Hyoid bone, Thoracic cage, and Vertebrae
How many bones in total make up the Axial Skeleton?
What are the three functions of Axial Skeleton?
Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
Supports the head, neck, and trunk
Protects the brain, spinal cord and organs of thoracic cavity
How many bones are found in the skull?
How many cranial and facial bones are in the skull?
8; 14 bones
While most of the skull is made up of flat bones, what irregular bone is found within the skull?
What are interlocking joints called?
What type of bone encloses and protects brain as well as being the attachment site for head and neck muscles?
What are the 8 cranial bones?
Frontal, parietal, occipital, ethmoid, temporal, and sphenoid (F-POETS)
What bones are paired in the cranial bones?
Parietal and temporal
What is the hole where brain meets spinal cord called?
What articulates with first cervical vertebra called?
What suture is where the parietal bones meet?
What suture is where parietal bones meet frontal bone?
What suture is where parietal bones meet temporal bones?
What suture does the parietal bones meet the occipital bone?
The 4 largest sutures are found where _______ bone articulates with other bones.
The sphenoid bone articulates with all other cranial bones which is called?
Saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone where pituitary gland sits?
The ethmoid bone is between what two bones?
Nasal and sphenoid
What ethmoid bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity and the olifactory nerve foramen?
What ethmoid bone is the site of attachment for the dura mater brain covering?
What ethmoid bone forms superior portion of nasal septum?
What ethmoid bone form part of lateral walls of nasal cavity?
Superior and middle nasal conchae
What are the 14 facial bones?
Lacrimal (2), Inferior nasal conchae (2), Nasal (2), Zygomatic (2), Mandible, Vomer, Maxilla (2), and Palatine (2)
What two bones are are not paired in the facial bone?
Mandible and Vomer
_______ and _____________ bones form hard palate.
Maxilla and palatine
What is actually 2 bones fused medially that anchors the upper teeth?
What bone anchors lower teeth and forms chin?
What bone forms cheekbones?
What bone form bridge of nose and attach hyaline cartilage?
What bone forms part of medial wall of orbits?
What bone forms part of nasal septum?
What bone forms part of lateral walls of nasal cavity?
Inferior nasal conchae
What are the 5 functions of the facial bones?
Openings for air and food
Cavities for the senses
Anchor the facial muscles of expression
Framework of the face
Secure the teeth
Bones of the ___ are not fully ossified at birth
What is unossified remnants of firbrous membranes called?
What is the only bone that doesn't articulate with another bone, is attached by a ligament to to temporal bone, attachment for tongue and neck muscles, and fractured during strangulation?
What develops from the 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches, transmit and amplify sound waves, and contains the Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrup)?
What are the functions of the vertebral column?
Support body, Surround and protect spinal cord, and attachment point for ribs and back muscles
What is the vertebrae held together by?
Ligaments- dense regular and elastic
Intervertebral discs between vertebrae is made out of what and does what?
Fibrocartilage; Shock absorber/ resists compressior
What are the 5 types of vertebrae?
Cervicle (neck); 7; c1-c7
Thoracic (chest); 12; t1-t12
Lumbar (lower back); 5; l1-l5
Sacrum (pelvic); 5 fused
Coccyx (tailbone); 4 fused
What bone shape is the vertebrae?
What is weight bearing in the vertebrae?
What is the attachment site and points posteriorly on the vertebrae?
What is the attachment site and points laterally on the vertebrae?
What is on the vertebrae which the spinal cord passes through?
What is the smallest, lightest vertebrae?
What vertebrae has transverse forming (holes) and spinous process bifid (split at top)?
What vertebrae are concave and which are convex?
Cervicle/Lumbar and Thoracic/sacrum
What has no body or spinous process (posterior attachment), but does have superior articular facets?
Cervicle vertebrae Atlas (C1)
What articulates with occipital condyles of cranium and allows for nodding?
Superior articular facets
What is a superior projection of the Axis that allows the head to pivot and has no transverse foramina (lateral attachment)?
Odontoid process (dens)
What part of the vertebrae is angled inferiorly and all have facets to articulate with head of ribs or tubercle (except for 11 and 12)?
What vertebrae is larger and bulkier and has a spinous process that is short, hatchet-shaped?
What has holes for passage of blood vessels and nerves?
What vertebrae is beak-shaped, forms the tailbone, gives support for pelvic organs, and muscle/tendon attatchment?
Spine of infants is convex posteriorly which is what type of curvature?
Concave posterior curvatures of cervicle and lumber vertebrae is what type of curvature?
What type of curvature develops when infant gains ability to lift head?
What type of curvature develops when walking begins?
What type of spinal abnormality is posteriorly exaggerated curvature (humpback)?
What type of spinal abnormality is exaggerated lumber curvature "swayback" which is typically found within men with potbellies or pregnant women?
What type of spinal abnormality has an abnormal lateral curve of any portion of spine (most often thoracic)?
What does the the Thoracic cage hold?
Sternum and Ribs
What are the thoracic cage's functions?
Protect organs, support shoulders/upper limbs, and attachment sites for muscles of neck, back, chest, and shoulder
What contains the fusion of the 3 bones Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid process?
What articulates with clavicles and ribs 1-2?
What is the attachment point for some abdominal muscles?
What articulates with ribs 2-7?
How many pairs of ribs are there?
What are the true ribs that are directly attached to sternum by individual coastal (hyaline) cartilage?
What are the false ribs that have the first 3 pairs attach to sternum indirectly through costal cartilage and the last 2 pairs floating with no anterior attachments?
What holds the bones of limbs and the 2 girdles pectoral (shoulder) girdle and pelvic (hip) girdle as well as carries out voluntary movements?
Shoulder girdle that attaches left and right arms to axial skeleton and consists of scapula and clavicle?
What does the pectoral girdle have to have because the scapulae doesn't articular with axial skeleton?
Loose girdle- muscle attachment only
What consists of the humerus, radius, ulna joint humorous, carpals (8), metacarpals (5), and phalanges (14)?
The pectoral girdle
What is the pathology that when the transverse carpal ligament covers the carpals making a "tunnel" of nerves and tendons due to the overuse or inflammation causing the tendons to swell and pinch nerves?
Carpal tunnel syndrome
What supports the upper body, attaches the left and right legs to the axial skeleton, consists of sacrum and pair of coxal bones?
What is the bone that is 3 fused bones (the ilium, ischium, and pubis) fused at acetabulum?
What is long and narrow, pubic arch less than 80 degrees, and obturator foramen round in shape?
What is short and wide, pubic arch 80-90 degrees, and obturator foramen oval in shape?
What consists of the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals (7), metatarsals (5), and phalanges (14)?
The pelvic girdle
What is the 2nd largest and strongest bone in the body?
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