Terms in this set (110)
tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
a lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing
the main passageways directly attached to the lungs
small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi to alveoli
a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, and lung infections
the passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue
a membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity
a fluid secreted by alveoli and found in the lungs
the amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation
the movement of air in and out of the body via inhalation and exhalation
a small amount of stale air, called the _________ _________, remains trapped in alveoli after expiration and mixes with the fresh air brought in through inspiration
At the end of a sprint, a runner breathes hard because the medulla oblongata senses which of the following?
Blood becoming more acidic
Carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood to produce H+ and HCO3- ions, decreasing pH and increasing acidity. The pH is sensed by the medulla oblongata.
Which of the following situations would result in increased oxygen diffusion from alveoli into blood?
reduction in residual volume of the lung
Reducing the residual volume of the lung will cause a higher inspiratory volume and oxygen gradient.
blood vessels that deliver blood from the heart too other parts of the body
small blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules
the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart refills with blood
the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
white blood cells, which protect the body against disease
clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease
a subtype of white blood cell found in lymph
the pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets throughout the body
the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart expels blood
build up of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls.
improper beating of the heart, whether irregular, too fast or too slow
damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply
a ballooning a weakened area in an artery
a condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high
blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle
which of the following describes a property of cardiac cells?
generation of electrical impulses
which of the following blood component levels would be expected to increase following vaccination?
which of the following statements regarding the circulatory system is correct?
the sinoatrial node is present in the top section of the right atrium
what are the three main secretions of the stomach?
pepsinogen (chief cells), mucus (goblet cells) and hydrochloric acid (parietal cells)
the break down of food by enzymes for absorption
also known as the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination
the organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions
the gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices
part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs.
which of the following physiological responses follows eating a large meal?
peristalsis rate increase
Peristalsis is the action that causes food to move in the digestive system, and this increases after food enters the digestive system compared to when there is no food in the digestive system
which of the following describes why liver failure is a critical health emergency?
the liver filters digestion products and produces urea as waste.
the liver converts ammonia to urea.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing and heart rate
a nerve fiver that carries a nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body
the process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in a muscle
fibrous tissue that produces force and morton to move the body or produce movement in parts of the body
a bundle of nerve fivers that transmits electrical impulses toward and away from the brain and spinal cord
an involuntary action to a stimulus
release of tension in a muscle
the structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands
the passage that forms the lower part of the uterus.
tunes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus
the gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm
the punch of skin that contains the testicles
the duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra
the middle layer of skin
to become wider
the outer layer of skin
an organ system comprised skin and its associated organs
under the dermis
a gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure and other functions
a chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the bloodstream that regulates specific processes in the body
an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone
a small gland at the base of the brain that controls growth and development
the lymphoid organ that produces T-cells
the gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
the system comprised of the heart and blood vessels
the pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood
the part of the kidney responsible for filtering and excretion
the two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys
the outer layer of the kidney
the innermost part of the kidney
the center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter
a vein carrying blood from a kidney to they inferior vena cava
an enzyme released by the kidney when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries
the main nitrogenous part of urine
the duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder
the structure that stores urine in the body until elimination
liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys
adaptive immune system
a kind of passive or active immunity in which antibodies to a particular antigen are present in the body
a blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen
antifen presenting cell (APC)
a cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces
a substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host
lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens
a divider between parts of the body
the group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens
antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T-cells
innate immune system
a collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve as an inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens
a large white blood cell that ingests foreign material
ingestion of particles a single type of antibody
a white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody
a lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction
white blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response
brittle bone disease
a group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones
microscoping canals in ossified bone.
the primary structural protein of connective tissue
channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves
layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls
flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts
degenerative joint disease
cells that make bone
cells that remove bone
cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone
a disease that causes brittle, fragile bones
a progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain
channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with haversian canals.