54 terms

WC II Unit Six: The French Revolution

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Saint Bartholomew's
Day Massacre
August 24, 1572; a massacre of 6000 to 8000 Huguenots in Paris authorized by King Charles IX and his mother Catherine de Medici.
Edict of Nantes
A declaration of French King Henry IV in which he promised that Protestants could live peacefully in France and were free to establish houses of worship in selected French cities.
Cardinal Richelieu
French minister and chief minister of King Louis XIII; he wanted to strengthen the monarchy and fought against Huguenot resistance to the Catholic Monarchy.
Louis XIV
King of France from 1643-1715; known as the Sun King, he built the palace at Versailles as a means to consolidate absolute power; a series of wars at the end of his long reign drained Frances's wealth.
War of the Spanish
Succession
Fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France.
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession; it gave the throne to Louis XIV's grandson but also stated that France and Spain would never be ruled by the same Monarch.
How did Henry IV end France's wars of religion?
By converting to Catholicism and granting certain rights to the Huguenots.
Why did Richelieu become involved in the Thirty Years' War?
He wanted to bring down the Hapsburg family.
What were the main events in the monarchy of Louis XIV?
Building of Versailles, cancellation of Edict of Nantes, War of the Spanish Succession, Treaty of Utrecht.
What were the three causes of the French Revolution?
Inequalities in Society, Ideas of the Enlightenment, & Financial Crisis
King Louis XVI
King of France from 1774-1792; his unpopular polices helped trigger the French Revolution. Deposed by the National Convention, he was executed by guillotine.
Second Estate
In pre-Revolution France, the nobles.
Marie-Antoinette
Queen of France, wife of Louis XVI; she was queen during the French Revolution and disliked by many French citizens. She was found guilty of treason and guillotined.
First Estate
In pre-Revolution France, the clergy.
Third Estate
In pre-Revolution France, the bourgeoisie, artisans, workers, and peasants.
What spending patterns put France into deep debt by the 1780s?
Barrowing huge sums of money to spend on wars; lavish spending by the king and his court.
Why did "the mob" storm the Bastille?
To look for weapons to defend themselves; the Bastille was a symbol of oppression.
Why did the National Assembly turn the clergy into public employees?
They wanted the clergy to be accountable to the public, not part of a separate institution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
A document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution...liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Bourgeoisie
The urban middle class; merchants, professionals, and manufacturers.
Maximilien Robespierre
Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution, He became increasingly radical and led the National convention during its most bloodthirsty time.
Old Order
The political and social system in place in France before the Revolution.
Guillotine
A device used during the French Revolution for beheading people.
Counterrevolution
A revolution against a government established by a revolution.
Reign of Terror
A period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens.
Jean-Paul Marat
An advocate of violence and a leader of the Paris sans culottes, was one of the National Convention's most radical leaders.
What changes did the radical government make in French society and politics?
Tried and executed the king; set up Committee of Public Safety and the Revolutionary Tribunal; closed churches; tried to undo the "old ways"
How did the revolution affect the church and the clergy?
Some clergy lost positions, Parisian churches closed, Robespierre created new cult, statues were altered.
What was the Reign of Terror, and how did it end?
A period of accusations, trials, and executions that created a wave of fear; when those who began the terror were killed.
Where did the main opposition to the Revolution come from?
The countryside
Why did the peasants generally oppose the revolution government?
Peasants were devoutly Catholic, some supported monarchy, opposed anticlerical moves.
First meeting in 1795, what was the new governing board in France called?
The Directory
Napoleon Bonaparte
General; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
Plebiscite
The procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a yes-or-no vote.
Horatio Nelson
British Admiral; he defeated Napoleon's navy in Egypt and again at the Battle of Trafalgar.
coup d'état
'stroke of state"; the sudden overthrow of a government by force.
Continental System
The system of commercial blockades of Britain and continental Europe set in place by Napoleon with the intent of destroying Britain's economy.
Nationalism
Sense of pride and devotion to one's nation.
Reactionary
An extremist who not only opposes change but also wants to undo certain changes.
Alexander I
Czar of Russia from 1801 - 1825; after the defeat of Napoleon's army in 1812, he became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe, supporting the suppression of all revolutionary movements in Russia and Europe.
Hundred Days
(1815) period that marks the time between Napoleon's return to Paris from Elba (March 20), his final defeat at Waterloo (June 18), and the restoration of King Louis XVIII.
Prince von Metternich
Austrian statesman and diplomat; he was the Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna.
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Charles de Talleyrand
French statesman and diplomat; he was one of the negotiators at the Congress of Vienna; he represented France on behalf of Louis XVIII.
Battle of the Nile
Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated a French fleet, forcing Napoleon to withdraw from Egypt
Battle of Waterloo
Battle in which Napoleon is defeated by Duke Wellington.
Napoleonic Wars
1803-1815 ... A series of wars fought between France and other European powers for control of Europe.
Congress of Vienna
Was a meeting of ambassadors of European states held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815. The objective was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace.
Elba
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
Why did the Congress of Vienna want to suppress all revolutions?
Saw revolutions as destabilizing force; wanted to stabilize Europe.
What were Napoleon's last campaigns?
The Hundred Days, Battle of Waterloo
What is the legacy of the French Revolution?
Monarchs no longer secure in their positions, people realized they could change their governments and destinies.
Why is the French Revolution considered so important historically?.
Ideals of revolution inspired people worldwide' gave knowledge that people could change their own destinies.
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon . Led to Napoleon being deposed, and exiled on Elba.