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ORAL General Weight and Balance
Terms in this set (23)
What is the difference between fixed-wing and helicopter C.G. ranges?
Most helicopters have a more restricted C.G. range.
What are the most common leveling methods used in weight and balance procedures?
Use a spirit level or plumb bob at the manufacturer's leveling points for longitudinal and lateral leveling.
What is ballast and why is it used in aircraft?
Any weight added or removed to obtain a desired C.G.
What is meant by the terms "residual fuel" and "residual oil?"
Fuel and oil remaining in the tanks, lines, and engine after draining.
What is an aircraft loading graph?
A method for determining load distribution to keep the weight and operation C.G. within the approved range.
What is meant by positive (plus) and negative (minus) moment?
Any weight item removed is a minus weight and any weight item added is a plus weight. Multiplying a weight by an arm will result in a plus moment if the signs are alike and minus moment if the signs are unlike.
How is the arm of an item of equipment obtained when computing aircraft weight and balance?
The arm of each item of equipment is usually included in the specification for the aircraft or may be obtained by actual measurement.
How would you determine the empty weight and empty weight C.G. of an aircraft if all the weight and balance records are missing?
The aircraft must be weighed and a new set of weight and balance records must be computed and compiled.
What should be done concerning fuel when weighing an aircraft for weight and balance purposes?
With the aircraft in a level attitude, drain fuel system until empty.
What is the purpose of aircraft weight and balance control?
The primary purpose is safety.
How is the "moment" of an item of equipment obtained when computing aircraft weight and balance?
The moment of an item about the datum is obtained by multiplying the weight of the item by its horizontal distance from the datum.
What undesirable flight characteristic is most likely to result from exceeding the forward C.G. limit of an aircraft?
It may lead to insufficient stability with resulting difficulty in controlling the aircraft.
The forward C.G. limit of an aircraft is exceeded by installation of several items of equipment in the engine compartment. How can this problem be corrected or compensated for without removing or changing any of the newly-installed equipment?
Ballast is used in an aircraft to attain the desired C.G. balance.
What is "tare weight" and how is it handled when making weight and balance calculations?
Weight of all extra items, such as jacks, blocks, and chocks, on the weighing scale platform and is subtracted from total weight.
What is the datum of an aircraft and what is its function?
The datum is an imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal measurements are taken for balance purposes.
Why is an empty weight C.G. range specified by some manufacturers, even though an aircraft is not operated at empty weight?
When empty weight C.G. falls within the empty weight C.G. range, it is unnecessary to perform a forward or rearward weight and balance check provided standard loading and seating arrangements are used.
How can you determine the effect of a new item of equipment of the aircraft weight and balance without weighing the aircraft?
The effect can be determined by basic computations if the weight and balance records are up to date.
How is a negative (minus) moment obtained aft of the datum?
By removing weight.
How is a positive (plus) moment obtained forward of the datum?
By removing weight.
How is negative (minus) moment obtained forward of the datum?
By adding weight.
Name one common leveling method used in weight and balance procedures.
Use of a spirit level at the manufacturers designated leveling points OR use of a built-in leveling scale (or protractor) and plumb bob.
Why is aircraft category a factor when computing weight and balance?
Aircraft certificated in both normal and utility categories may have two useful loads due to different gross weights.
What does the term "mean aerodynamic chord" (MAC) refer to?
The MAC is the average chord or distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of an airfoil, usually a wing, as measured in cross section.
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