Chapter 3 Test

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Terms in this set (...)

weather
condition of the atmosphere in one place during short period of time
climate
weather patterns typical for an area over a long period of time
axis
an imaginary line that runs through the center of the earth between the north and the south poles
predictable
expected or able to be foreseen
revolution
in astronomy, the Earth's yearly trip around the sun, taking 365.5 days
equinox
1 of 2 days (about March 21 and September 23) on which the sun is directly above the Equator, making day and night equal in length
solstice
1 of 2 days (about June 21 and December 22) on which the sun's rays strike directly on the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn, marking the beginning of summer or winter
midnight sun
continuous daylight, a time when the sun is visible at midnight during the summer in either the Arctic or Antarctic Circle
greenhouse effect
the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat, thereby warming the Earth
eventually
taking place later; in the end
crucial
vitally important
current
cold or warm stream of seawater that flows in the oceans, generally in a circular pattern
prevailing winds
wind in a region that blows in a fairly constant directional pattern
Coriolis effect
the resulting deflection of prevailing winds caused by the Earth's rotation
doldrums
a frequently windless area near the Equator
derive
acquire
El Niño
a periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and water temperatures in the mid-Pacific region
windward
being in or facing the direction from which the wind is blowing
leeward
being in or facing the direction toward which the wind is blowing
rain shadow
result of a process by which dry areas develop on the leeward sides of mountain ranges
biome
major types of ecological community defined primarily by distinctive plant and animal groups
natural vegetation
plant life that grows in a certain area if people have not changed the natural environment
overlap
to partly cover
terrain
the physical characteristics of the surface of the land
average daily temperature
the average daily high temperature and the overnight low; often used for comparison across climate regions
oasis
small area in a desert where water and vegetation are found
prairie
an inland grassland area
coniferous
referring to vegetation having cones and needle-shaped leaves, including many evergreens, that keep their foliage throughout the winter
deciduous
falling off or shed seasonally or periodically; trees such as oak and maple, which lose their leaves in autumn
mixed forest
forest with both coniferous and deciduous trees
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
what direction do winds blow in the northern hemisphere
clockwise
what direction do winds blow in the southern hemisphere
counterclockwise
desert
hot days and cool nights, little to no rain
tropical rainforest
hot and humid all year, enough rainfall for thick forest growth
humid continental
very cold, snowy winters, short cooler summers
Mediterranean
mild rainy winters, hot dry summers
marine west coast
cool summers, mild winters, some heavy rain in winter
steppe
dry areas, little rainfall, borders deserts
highland (mountain)
temperatures vary with the altitude
tropical savanna
rainy summers, dry period in the winter, little change in temperature which is always high
tundra
bitterly cold winter, cold summers with little sun
subarctic
long, severely cold winters, short cool summers;world's widest temperature ranges
humid subtropical
hot summers, rain year-round, short and mild winters
what is the difference between a biome and a climate
A biome includes the life of the region, like the types of animals and plants that live there. A climate is the type of weather patterns typical an area over a long period of time. Though they are different, certain biomes often have climates that go with them.
what is the greenhouse effect? is it good or bad?
The Greenhouse Effect is the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat, thereby warming the earth. We need this phenomenon to survive. Otherwise, the earth would be a very cold place. In that sense it is good. However, to much of anything is a bad thing. Too much of the Greenhouse Effect is making the world warmer and warmer, which is harmful to the environment. If it warms too much, we life wouldn't be able to survive.
what are the tropical climates
tropical wet and tropical dry
what are the dry climates
arid (desert) and semi-arid (steppe)
what are the types of midlatitude climates
humid subtropical, marine west coast, Mediterranean, humid continental
what are the types of high latitude climates
tundra and subarctic
what are some indicators of climate change
The global temperature has increased by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit over the past century. Some indicators of climate change include rising global temperatures, severe weather changes (like Hurricane Harvey) , and rising sea levels.
How do latitude, elevation, wind, water, and landforms affect earth's climate?
There are many factors that influence the Earth's climate. Latitude to some extent determines what kind of climate the area receives. For example, low latitude climates that are near to the equator get continuous and direct sunlight, so warm or hot climates typically are found in these regions. The elevation of a location effects climate too. The higher the elevation, the lower the temperature. The top of a mountain is much colder than the base of that mountain because of the difference in elevation. Winds are constantly trying to distribute the sun's energy. Air moves along the pressure gradient from areas of high pressure to low pressure, so the cool air then flows in to replace the warm rising air. It is crucial to a region's climate. Currents also help distribute energy around the planet. England's water is not as cold as it should be for its latitude, but the current brings the warm water up to the England area, which warms the water. Wind and water work together to determine the precipitation of an area. Landforms such as mountain ranges can affect the climate drastically. An increase in elevation means lower temperatures, which causes precipitation, which falls on the windward side. Winds then become warmer and drier on the leeward side, which causes a rain shadow.
what is the famous line above the equator called
tropic of cancer
what are the 2 major factors that affect the distribution of biomes
climate and terrain
what type of climate can a tropical rainforest be found in
tropical wet (and tropical dry)
read the Kyoto Protocol
and ask what the climate type that covers most of the world is
compare and contrast acid rain and smog
Acid rain and smog are both the result of burning fossil fuels, and they are both harmful to the environment. However, acid rain forms when the burning of fossil fuels releases gases that mix with water forming in the air, creating acids. Smog is formed when exhaust is released from the burning of fossil fuels and is heated in the atmosphere. Acid rain can destroy forests, whereas smog creates a visible haze in the atmosphere.