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one or more premises that lead to one conclusion


statement that is true or false that is offered in support of the claim


appeal to reason


appeal to emotions


appeal detemined by ones character and ethical issues


premises appears to provide complete support for the conclusion. pretty close to guarnteed


premises appear to have some support but less than complete support of the conclusion. meerly a possibility


true premises or seem to be true with a likely conclusion


one or more of the premises leads to a false conclusion


when the premises offered do not support the conclusion



false dilemma (either/or)

limited number of options are given while in realuty there are more options. called cardstacking. one side of a multifaceted issue

hasty generalization

the size of the sample is too small to support the conclusion

red herring

an irrlevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue

ad hominem

against the man/person. a claim or arguement is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of the argument

false/faulty analogy

two objects or events (A & B) are shown to be similar. it is then suggested that object "a" has property "p", therefore, object "b" must also have property "p". this argument fails when a & b are different in ways which effect whether they each have property "p".


all parties feel that their side has been fairly represent and consider


replacing a part with a whole or a whole with a part


a form of understandment (meiosis) that emphasizes the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite


replacing an idea with an associated idea


omission of conjuntions between related clauses


repetition of conjunctions


the juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas


the reptition of the same word or group of words at the beginnings of sucessive clauses


repition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another


the jutaposition of two contradictory terms


reversal of grammatical structures in sucessive clauses


use of exaggerated terms for emphasis


the use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truth


word choice


the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences

begging the question

the truth of the conclusion is assumed in the premises. often, the conclusion is simply restated in a slightly different form in the premises

coincidental correlation (post hoc ergo propter hoc)

after this terefore because of this. in this argument, the author assumes that because one thing follows another that the one thing was cause by the other

sweeping generalization

the sample used is an inductive inference is relevantly different from the population as a whole


the repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of succesive clauses

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