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35 terms

Fallicies

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argument
one or more premises that lead to one conclusion
premise
statement that is true or false that is offered in support of the claim
logos
appeal to reason
pathos
appeal to emotions
ethos
appeal detemined by ones character and ethical issues
deductive
premises appears to provide complete support for the conclusion. pretty close to guarnteed
inductive
premises appear to have some support but less than complete support of the conclusion. meerly a possibility
sound
true premises or seem to be true with a likely conclusion
unsound
one or more of the premises leads to a false conclusion
fallacy
when the premises offered do not support the conclusion
analogy
comparison
false dilemma (either/or)
limited number of options are given while in realuty there are more options. called cardstacking. one side of a multifaceted issue
hasty generalization
the size of the sample is too small to support the conclusion
red herring
an irrlevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue
ad hominem
against the man/person. a claim or arguement is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of the argument
false/faulty analogy
two objects or events (A & B) are shown to be similar. it is then suggested that object "a" has property "p", therefore, object "b" must also have property "p". this argument fails when a & b are different in ways which effect whether they each have property "p".
accomodation
all parties feel that their side has been fairly represent and consider
synecdoche
replacing a part with a whole or a whole with a part
litotes
a form of understandment (meiosis) that emphasizes the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite
metonymy
replacing an idea with an associated idea
asyndeton
omission of conjuntions between related clauses
polysyndeton
repetition of conjunctions
antithesis
the juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas
anaphora
the reptition of the same word or group of words at the beginnings of sucessive clauses
anadiplosis
repition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another
oxymoron
the jutaposition of two contradictory terms
chiasmus
reversal of grammatical structures in sucessive clauses
hyperbole
use of exaggerated terms for emphasis
paradox
the use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truth
diction
word choice
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
begging the question
the truth of the conclusion is assumed in the premises. often, the conclusion is simply restated in a slightly different form in the premises
coincidental correlation (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
after this terefore because of this. in this argument, the author assumes that because one thing follows another that the one thing was cause by the other
sweeping generalization
the sample used is an inductive inference is relevantly different from the population as a whole
epistrophe
the repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of succesive clauses