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Linear Motion, V, Vo, a, t

V=V₀+at

Linear Motion, Δx, Vo, a, t

Δx=V₀**t+1/2 a** a*t²

Linear Motion, V, Vo, a, x

V²=V₀²+2aΔx

Linear Motion, Δx, avg. V, t

Δx=avgV**t=t***(V₀+V)/2

Force

∑F=m**a, in newtons 1 N=1 kg**g*m/s²

Weight

W=m*g, where g= 9.8 m/s²

Gravity

F=Gm₁m₂/r², where G is the gravitational constant

Gravitational Constant

6.67E-11 N*m²/kg²

Torque

τ=rFsinθ, where θ=angle between r and F

Kinetic friction

f=μN, where N=normal force and μ=friction coefficient

Centripetal Force

F=ma=mv²/r

Work

W=Fdcosθ, measured in Joules, 1 J=1 N*m

Power

P=W/t, measured in Watts, 1 watt=1 J/s

Kinetic Energy

KE=mv²/2, measured in Joules

Potential Energy

U=mgh, measured in joules

Momentum

p=mv

Impulse

J=F*t=Δp

Specific Heat

Q=mcΔT; only where there is no phase change

Heat of Transformation

Q=mL, where L is the heat required to change phase of 1 kg of substance

Pressure

P=F/A, in Pascals, 1 Pa=1 N/m²

Thermodynamic Work

W=PΔV

First Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU=Q-W, where ΔU is change in internal energy.

Density

ρ=m/v

Absolute Pressure of a Fluid

P=P₀+ρgh, where P₀ is pressure at the surface, h is depth of the point measured.

Pascal's Principle

ΔP=F₁/A₁=F₂/A₂

V=A₁d₁=A₂d₂

W=F₁d₁=F₂d₂

V=A₁d₁=A₂d₂

W=F₁d₁=F₂d₂

Continuity Equation

v₁A₁=v₂A₂

Bernoulli's Equation

P₁+ρv₁²/2+ρgy₁=P₂+ρv₂²/2+ρgy₂, where P=absolute pressure, ρ=density, and y=height relative to reference height

Fundamental Unit of Charge

e=1.60E-19 C

Coulomb's Law

F=K q₁*q₂/r², magnitude of force between two charges

Electric Potential Energy

U=kqQ/r

Electric Field

F=q₀E, where Force is acted upon charged particle in E, electric field

Electric Potential

V=W/q₀, W is work needed to move test charge

Magnetic Force

F=qvBsinθ, on moving charge q at angle θ relative to magnetic field B

right-hand rule

hand on plane with forefingers pointing B and thumb pointing qv, F will come out of palm

Magnetic Centripetal Force

F=qvB=mv²/r, for when qv is perpendicular to B

Current

i=Δq/Δt, in Ampere, 1 A=1C/s

Force for Current-carrying Wire

F=iLBsinθ, for wire length L carrying i at angle θ to B

Ohm's Law

V=iR, where R is resistance

Power dissipation by Resistor

P=iV=i²R=V²/R

Resistors in Series

R=R₁+R₂+R₃+...

Resistors in Parallel

1/R=1/R₁+1/R₂+1/R₃+... V=V₁=V₂=...

Capacitance

C=Q/V, in Farads, 1 F=1C/V

Capacitors in Parallel

C=C₁+C₂+C₃+...

Capacitors in Series

1/C=1/C₁+1/C₂+...

Angular Frequency

ω=√(k/m)=√(g/L); k/m for spring, g/L for pendulum

Simple Harmonic Motion: acceleration

a=-ω²x

Simple Harmonic Motion: Linear Restoring Force

F=-kx

Speed of Wave

v=fλ, where λ=wavelength

Wave variable relationships

v=fλ=ω/k=λ/T; k=2π/λ, ω=2πf=2π/T

Sound Intensity

P=IA, where P=power, I=intensity, A=surface area

Sound Level

β=10log(I/I₀) where I₀=1E-12 W/m²

Beat Frequency

f=|f₁-f₂|

Doppler Effect

f=f₀(v±Vd)/(v±Vs), Vd is speed of detector, Vs is speed of source. + top - bottom for moving towards, - top + bottom for moving away

Speed of Light

c=fλ, c=3.00E8

Magnification

m=-i/o, i is distance of image from mirror, o distance object from mirror

Snell's Law

n=c/v, n₁sinθ₁=n₂sinθ₂, where n is index of refraction

Exponential Decay

n=n₀e^(-λt), λ is decay constant

Decay Constant

λ=ln2/T, where T is half life

Photon Energy

E=hf, where h=6.626E-34 (Planck's constant)