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Linear Motion, V, Vo, a, t

V=V₀+at

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Linear Motion, Δx, Vo, a, t

Δx=V₀**t+1/2 a**t²

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Linear Motion, V, Vo, a, x

V²=V₀²+2aΔx

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Linear Motion, Δx, avg. V, t

Δx=avgV**t=t**(V₀+V)/2

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Force

∑F=m**a, in newtons 1 N=1 kg**m/s²

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Weight

W=m*g, where g= 9.8 m/s²

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Gravity

F=Gm₁m₂/r², where G is the gravitational constant

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Gravitational Constant

6.67E-11 N*m²/kg²

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Torque

τ=rFsinθ, where θ=angle between r and F

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Kinetic friction

f=μN, where N=normal force and μ=friction coefficient

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Centripetal Force

F=ma=mv²/r

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Work

W=Fdcosθ, measured in Joules, 1 J=1 N*m

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Power

P=W/t, measured in Watts, 1 watt=1 J/s

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Kinetic Energy

KE=mv²/2, measured in Joules

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Potential Energy

U=mgh, measured in joules

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Specific Heat

Q=mcΔT; only where there is no phase change

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Heat of Transformation

Q=mL, where L is the heat required to change phase of 1 kg of substance

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Pressure

P=F/A, in Pascals, 1 Pa=1 N/m²

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First Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU=Q-W, where ΔU is change in internal energy.

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Absolute Pressure of a Fluid

P=P₀+ρgh, where P₀ is pressure at the surface, h is depth of the point measured.

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Pascal's Principle

ΔP=F₁/A₁=F₂/A₂

V=A₁d₁=A₂d₂

W=F₁d₁=F₂d₂

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Continuity Equation

v₁A₁=v₂A₂

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Bernoulli's Equation

P₁+ρv₁²/2+ρgy₁=P₂+ρv₂²/2+ρgy₂, where P=absolute pressure, ρ=density, and y=height relative to reference height

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Fundamental Unit of Charge

e=1.60E-19 C

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Coulomb's Law

F=K q₁*q₂/r², magnitude of force between two charges

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Electric Potential Energy

U=kqQ/r

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Electric Field

F=q₀E, where Force is acted upon charged particle in E, electric field

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Electric Potential

V=W/q₀, W is work needed to move test charge

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Magnetic Force

F=qvBsinθ, on moving charge q at angle θ relative to magnetic field B

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right-hand rule

hand on plane with forefingers pointing B and thumb pointing qv, F will come out of palm

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Magnetic Centripetal Force

F=qvB=mv²/r, for when qv is perpendicular to B

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Current

i=Δq/Δt, in Ampere, 1 A=1C/s

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Force for Current-carrying Wire

F=iLBsinθ, for wire length L carrying i at angle θ to B

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Ohm's Law

V=iR, where R is resistance

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Power dissipation by Resistor

P=iV=i²R=V²/R

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Resistors in Series

R=R₁+R₂+R₃+...

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Resistors in Parallel

1/R=1/R₁+1/R₂+1/R₃+... V=V₁=V₂=...

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Capacitance

C=Q/V, in Farads, 1 F=1C/V

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Capacitors in Parallel

C=C₁+C₂+C₃+...

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Capacitors in Series

1/C=1/C₁+1/C₂+...

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Angular Frequency

ω=√(k/m)=√(g/L); k/m for spring, g/L for pendulum

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Simple Harmonic Motion: acceleration

a=-ω²x

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Simple Harmonic Motion: Linear Restoring Force

F=-kx

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Speed of Wave

v=fλ, where λ=wavelength

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Wave variable relationships

v=fλ=ω/k=λ/T; k=2π/λ, ω=2πf=2π/T

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Sound Intensity

P=IA, where P=power, I=intensity, A=surface area

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Sound Level

β=10log(I/I₀) where I₀=1E-12 W/m²

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Doppler Effect

f=f₀(v±Vd)/(v±Vs), Vd is speed of detector, Vs is speed of source. + top - bottom for moving towards, - top + bottom for moving away

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Speed of Light

c=fλ, c=3.00E8

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Magnification

m=-i/o, i is distance of image from mirror, o distance object from mirror

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Snell's Law

n=c/v, n₁sinθ₁=n₂sinθ₂, where n is index of refraction

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Exponential Decay

n=n₀e^(-λt), λ is decay constant

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Decay Constant

λ=ln2/T, where T is half life

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Photon Energy

E=hf, where h=6.626E-34 (Planck's constant)

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