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the medial indentation where the ureter, blood vessels, and nerves are connected to the kidney is called the _____.


there are three regions of the kidney- the outermost region in known as the____.

renal cortex

renal pyramids are separated by extension of cortex-like tissue called the ____.

renal columns

the blood vessel carrying blood from the aorta into the kidney is the ____.

renal artery

The functional unit of the kidney that filter blood and forms urine is the ____.


the blood vessel directly feeding the glomerulus with blood for the cortical radiate is the ____.


The three processes occurring in the nephron that lead to the formation of urine are ____.

Filtration, absorption, secretion

Urine pH is usually around a pH of ____.


the tubes connecting the kidney to the bladder are the ____.


the smooth triangular region of the bladder base that is outlined by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the ____.


the involuntary sphincter that keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed is called the ____.

internal urethral sphincter

The process of emptying the bladder is known as voiding or ____.


What are the functions of the kidneys?

manufacture urine, convert Vitamin D from its inactive to active form, dispose of metabolic waste products, regulate blood volume

Which organ filters blood, regulates blood volume and chemical makeup


What term describes the location of the kidneys?


The kidneys are aided in the excretion of fluids by the ______ and ______.

lungs and skin

The triangular regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by the renal columns are the ______.

renal pyramids

As filtrate flows through he proximal convoluted tubule, where does it travel next?

loop of Henle

The portion of the renal tubule closest to the glomerulus is the ______.

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

Most nephrons are located within the renal ______.


Filtrate typically does NOT contain ______ proteins.

blood proteins

Which one of the following substances is normally found in urine- blood proteins, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, or creatinine?


The tube connecting the renal hilum of the kidney to the bladder is the ______.


Smooth muscle in the walls of the urine along to the bladder by ______.


The bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of ______.

transitional epithelium

Urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the ______.


the average adult bladder is moderately full with ______ of urine within it.

500 mL

The process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or ______.


In a one 24-hour period, the kidneys of an average- sized healthy adult filter approximately ______ liters of blood plasma through their glomeruli into the tubules


A blood pH of 7.4 is considered


the average output of urine for a normal healthy adult is ______ mL/day.


Control of the voluntary urethral sphincter in normal children is related to ______.

nervous system development

True or false: The kidneys are situated in a retroperitoneal position and found between the T12 and L3 vertebrae.


True or false: the tiny filtering structures of the kidneys are called nephrons


True or false: the region of the renal tubule closest to the glomerular capsule is the distal convoluted tubule.


True or false: blood protein and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and should not be found in filtrate


True or false: most reabsorbtion occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron


True or false: the pigment that gives urine its characteristic yellow color is urochrome


True or false: urine moves down the ureters into the bladder due to gravitational pull alone


True or false: the urethra, which carries urine exiting the bladder by peristalsis, is typically shorter in females than in males


True or false: antidieuretic hormone (ADH) causes increased water loss through the urine


True or false: a person with arterial blood pH above 7.45 is said to have acidosis


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