40 terms

chapter 14

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Terms in this set (...)

absolute zero
the point where particle motion stops; 0 K or -273 Celsius
boiling point
point at which a liquid rapidly turns into a gas
caloric
an old theory of how heat works--replaced by the kinetic theory of matter
calorimeter
device used to measure heat
condensation point
temperature at which particles in a gas stick together to form a liquid
conduction
transfer of heat through collision of particles
convection
transfer of heat through currents in a liquid or gas
freezing point
temperature at which the particles in a liquid turn into a solid
heat
thermal energy that is tranferred from one substance to another
heat of fusion
energy used to melt one gram of a substance without raising its temperature
heat of vaporization
amount of energy needed to cause one gram of a substance to become a gas
kelvin scale
useful for discussing changes in matter that happen at very low temperatures
kinetic theory of matter
states that whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas depends on the position and movement of the particles in the substance
melting point
temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
radiation
heat transfer through direct wave energy
specific heat
the ability of a substance to absorb heat
sublimation
when a solid turns directly into a gas (like dry ice)
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
thermal energy
the kinetic energy of the particles of a substance
active solar heating
uses panels, pumps, and pipes to move a liquid, heated by the sun, into the house
compression
air and fuel are "squished" inside the cylinder as the piston moves up
crankshaft
pistons are attached to this via connecting rods
cylinder
the piston moves up and down inside of this
diesel engine
uses compression to ignite a light oil fuel
exhaust stroke
burned combustion gases are forced out of the cylinder in this stroke
external combustion
literally, "to burn outside." An example is a steam engine.
heat engine
converts heat energy into mechanical energy
heat pump
moves heat from one place to another
hot water system
heating system that pumps hot water through pipes in the floor
intake stroke
air-fuel mixture is introduced into the cylinder
internal combustion
literally, "to burn inside."
passive solar heating
heating a building through the use of south-facing windows that trap the sun's heat in the building
piston
moves up and down inside the cylinder
power stroke
a spark ignites the air/fuel mixtures, driving the piston down
radiant electric system
heating system in which electrical wires are heated in the ceiling or walls of a room
spark plug
ignites the air/fuel mixture
steam heating system
steam from a boiler is piped to radiators in a building
steam turbine
high-pressure steam is directed at the blades of this "fan," causing it to spin
thermal insulators
these do not conduct heat well
warm-air system
air is heated in a furnace, and a fan distributs the heated air to the rooms of a building