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Special Education Chapter 7
Terms in this set (113)
In _________ the American Speech Hearing Association added language to its name and is now known as the American Speech Language Hearing Association
The Speech Language Pathologist works as a
educational team member and collaborator to provide services and support in the general education environment for students with communication disorders to facilitate their successful participation in socialization and learning
is the process by which one individual expresses those ideas, feelings, opinions, or messages to others and receive and understand ideas, feelings, opinions, or messages from others.
is a rule governed system of arbitrary symbols that stand for meaning
through which we send messages
through which we receive and understand messages
is the physical production of language
Speech can be viewed as consisting of four systems
the breathing that supports speech
the sound powered by the vocal folds/chords
the means by which sound is changed as it travels through the cavities of the neck and head
the formulation of speech sound by the lips,tongue, and other structures.
An element that is important to everyday speaking is
the forward flow of speech
Spoken languages are generally considered to have five components
System of speech sounds and the rules governing their use
Smallest Significant unit of sound
involves the rules governing the use of minimally significant units of meaning
Although humans are capable of making more than a hundred speech sounds, only about ________, depending on one' s dialect are used in American English
The minimally significant unit of meaning
Morphemes allow for the creation of
new words that may be added to one's vocabulary
refers to the rules of word function and word order
is a system of rules governing the meaning of words and word combinations
the use of language
gestures, body posture, and movement, eye contact and facial expressions
Physical difference between communicators
Effective communication requires a good match between
linguistic and non linguistic components of language
3 year olds sustain the topic in conversation only ______% of the time, ______ can remain on a topic when explaining something but still cannot sustain dialogue
20%, 4 year olds
IDEA defines a speech or language impairment as
a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, which adversely affects a child's educational performance
ASHA defines a speech disorder as
an impairment of the articulation of speech sound, fluency, and or voice
ASHA defines a language disorder as
the impairment or deviant development of comprehension and or use of spoken, written, and or other symbol system.
Language disorder involves 3 things
1. the form of language
- phonology, morphology, syntax
2. the content of language
3. the function of language in communication
About _____% of all students ages 6-21 who received services for disabilities under IDEA Part B in Fall 2006 received services for speech or language disorders
ASHA reports that approximately ___% of children entering school have a specific language impairment
Approximately _______________ of students receiving speech and language services are boys
Speech and language can be __________ which means one that _____________________. Or _________________which means one that __________________-
congenital which means one that the child is born with or acquired which means when the onset is after birth
Speech and language disorders can be classified as
organic or functional
Organic communication disorders may result from
an aberrant structure or a neuromuscular malfunction in the speech organs, such as cleft palate.
Functional communication disorders have
no organic cause to explain the disorder
-result of learning, psychological, or environmental factors
Factors associated with communication disorders include
- lack of adequate prenatal care
- brain damage during of after birth
-lack of stimulation in childhood
Specific Language Impairment
A child language disorder that exists in the absence of any developmental disability or obvious structural or neurological problems
-no known origin
What environmental factors increase the risk of SLI
poverty and limited language
About _________ to ___________% of children with SLI have a sibling or parent with a language disorder
20 to 40%
is an organic structural defect cause by the failure of the parts of the mouth and or lips to fuse appropriately during fetal development
Even though corrections may be made for some defects _____________ ___________ will still be necessary to correct the speech habits that have formed before the surgical or dental correction.
The cause of stuttering, the best known fluency disorder is
___________are the most common type of communication impairment affecting children
describes children who have difficulty in the physical production of speech sounds
Phonological processing disorder
refers to difficulty in learning the rules for producing speech sounds in the absence of any obvious physical limitation
Rules that simplify adult speech forms
Beyond the typical age of 4 when they disappear in normal development the child may require
may omit or misuse specific morphemes beyond the typical age to do so.
ex. saying two mouses or I fall down
may persis in using simple sentences when he or she should be using more complex structures or may continue to confuse word order when forming sentences or using more complex structure.
ex. where the truck is. I not want to go
may know a limited number of vocabulary words, use the wrong vocabulary word, create a new word, have trouble retrieving a word when it is needed, or have trouble with multiple meanings.
may have significant difficulties fitting into social settings due to difficulties in language use
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
have marked deficits in using communication for social interactions
is the atypical production of voice, quality, pitch, or loudness
the atypical production of speech sounds. It may include the substitution of one sound for another
has difficulty with only one or two specific sounds
is the atypical flow of verbal expression, characterized by impaired rate and rhythm, such as stuttering
What are the conditions that enhance fluency for some developmental stutters?
- acting from a script
- choral reading
Fluency disorders affect children between the ages of __________ and ___________.
2 and 10
________- to __________ boys are affected for every girl
three to four
School age children will be screened for communication problems, but what is the problem with the screening?
It will not show all existing problems
Classroom teachers should be prepared to refer students whose speech or language is
unique or unusual
Language assessment is an information gathering process requiring the speech pathologist (SLP) to rely on
-norm referenced testing
-perceptions and concerns of those who are significant in the child's life
The SLP is required to use _______________ measure to determine eligibility for services
more than one
______________is an essential initiation into the evaluation process
What are some informal measures a SLP will use to determine eligibility for services?
SLP may use these measures as well
interviews of the child or someone who knows the child well
-language sample done while the child is talking or telling a story
-observe child on the playground or during therapy
-may make a home visit
SLP may use a norm reference test. What are two issues associated with this testing?
They are based on standard American English and that they are typical devoid of context.
What is a commonly held myth about stuttering?
Stuttering disappears on its own
A phonological assessment by an SLP of the speaker of African American English must take into account the differences between
the sounds of Standard American English and African American English
Listeners not accustomed to African American storytelling style may have difficulty identifying the topic and make ask poorly times questions that interrupt the flow of the narrative and throw the speaker off balance. True or false?
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Conversational abilities that LEP students may master quite easily
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
The more complex, abstract language use related to problem, solving, evaluating, and inferring.
Conversation language encompasses conversational abilities used in
informal settings like the playground
Students who are learning a second language generally acquire conversational language in___________years, but may need ___________years to achieve academic language ability
1 to 3, 5 to 7
For teachers and other professionals serving students with disabilities, an understanding of communication disorders and intervention is paramount for three basic reasons
1. language ability is related to academic success
2. there is a strong relationship between students with disabilities and language deficiencies
3. Language deficiencies may be the earliest indicator of other problems.
An area that will most likely be a focus of students with communication disorders is
Teaching speech and language targets should all be taught
as they would naturally occur in conversation
__________________ is presented in Online Appendix A
A direct instruction lesson in teaching sight words
techniques that can be used to stimulate both comprehension and production in language development include the following
Using Self Talk
Using Parallel Talk
Restating what the students has said in a slightly more advanced manner
Restating with the addition of information to a child's utterance so that language or vocabulary is slightly more advanced.
Talking about what you are doing as you are doing it and perhaps why you are doing it.
Using Parallel Talk
Talking about what the student is doing while he or she is doing it.
Stating the utterance and letting the child complete it.
Another name for a car is_____________
__________for speech improvement need to be or reinforced in the general education classroom even if the student is in pullout therapy
Assess by a physician to identify the cause of the disorder
The goal in articulation therapy is for a child to produce correct speech sounds in all speaking situations
Stuttering therapies can be divided into two types: stuttering modification and fluency shaping
the person who stutters learns to regulate or control his or her dynamics
by using new and different techniques, speech can be stutter free
________________-fluency management is hard work and requires a great deal of mental energy
Day to Day
Language Instruction should take place in
the environment that the child is most likely to use it in because communication is influenced by the setting in which it takes place
The preschool classroom
-single most essential element of language intervention in inclusive preschools
-materials and settings should be rotated regularly
Roskos and Newman identified four key spacial elements in classroom that facilitate language learning and use
- open space
- clearly identified areas of the classroom
-the availability of a variety of materials that encourage creativity and problem solving
-authentic, functional, dramatic play settings such as pretend restaurants and grocery stores
Elementary school classroom
Furniture should be arranged to make it possible for students to easily interact with each other
EX. Large tables, interactive learning centers, computer centers
The secondary classroom
more severe language impairments may be taught in a community environment that may be a vocational training setting
What are common models used to deliver communication intervention include
coteching/parallel teaching instruction
Pullout/Direct Service Delivery
A therapist or an educator provides intervention to an individual or a small group outside the classroom
What are some advantages of the Pullout/Direct Service Delivery?
students get intense practice in speech and language skills
-groups sessions allow children to observe feedback given to others, and they are less stigmatized
What are some disadvantages of the Pullout/Direct Service Delivery?
students misses classroom time
-they get singled out
-child is not provided with the opportunity to learn to use the skills in real-life situations
Co Teaching/Parallel Instruction
Speech language pathologists are increasingly enter into collaborative setting with classroom teachers to support children with communication disorders.
What are some advantages of co-teaching/Parallel Instruction?
-general education classroom is usually the least restrictive academic environment
-SLP and teacher might benefit for each other's expertise and unique perspective about the child and thus be able to provide even greater support
-enhancing learning and increasing generalization
-exposed to peers who serve are models for pragmatic skills as well as other areas of language
-students remain in classroom
The therapist or educator provides guidelines for assessment and intervention to other professionals or family members but does not work directly with the individual.
Individuals with communication disorders who can most benefit from opportunities to interact with peers to increase and practice their language skills are often
avoided by their peers who find them uncomfortable to be around or too "weird" to play with
Peer Support Interventions
procedures used to increase peer interaction between children with and without communication disorders
McCormick recommends four peer support interventions
1. teachers peers to initiate interactions with their classmates with disabilities
2. teaching peers to respond to their classmates with disabilities
3. Peer modeling
4. cooperative learning practices
Peer modeling includes
promoting a model to remind a classmate with a disability what the rules are for a game on the playground or what to say in the lunch line
Includes methods and devices that supplement existing verbal communication skills to enhance the communication skills that the individual already exhibits
refers to techniques that substitute for spoken communication for those individuals who appear unable or unlikely to develop spoken language skills
The most commonly used AAC systems are
gestures and manual signs
Almost _________% of 6 to 21 year old students receiving speech and language services in the schools spent more that ____________ % of their time in the general education environment
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Special Education Chapter 1
Special Education Chapter 2
Special Education Chapter 3
Special Education Chapter 4
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