Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment or gain reward
Conventional Moral Reasoning
Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of a good citizen and to follow the rules and laws.
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
Characterized by references to universal ethical principles that represent the rights or obligations of all people
Erik Erikson theorized ________ stages of psychosocial development.
Trust v. Mistrust
Infancy (0-1.5) A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort & minimal amount of fear about the future. Infant's basic needs are met by responsive, sensitive caregivers.
Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
Toddler (1.5-3) After gaining trust, infants discover they have a will. They assert their sense of autonomy or independence. If restrained or punished too harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame & doubt.
Initiative v. Guilt
3-5 Preschool. Children learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent.
Industry v. Inferiority
Middle/Late Childhood (6-puberty) Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior.
Identity v. Role Confusion
Teens -20s Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
Intimacy v. Isolation
20s-40s Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
Generativity v. Stagnation
40s-60s The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of purpose.
Ego Integrity v. Despair
Late Adulthood. When reviewing his life, the older adult feels a sense of satisfaction or failure.