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What was meant by a contubernium?

A tent group of 8 men

How many men are there in a century?


How many cohorts in a legion?


Who was the senior centurion of a legion?


What was meant by the term imperium?

THe right to command an army

Why did a general in charge of any army have to be a praetor or consul(or ex-praetor/consul?

They had to be trained to lead an army.

What were two items of clothing worn by a general as a sign of his rank?

Moulded, Greek style armour and a purple cloak called a lacerna

Who commanded a legion?

The legatus

Who were the administrative officers of a legion?

Tribuni miltares - Military Tribunes

What was on the helmet of a centurion?

A transverse crest

What did all centurions carry as a sign of rank?

A vinewood staff

What was an optio?

A centurion deputy

How did Marius change the length of service of a soldier?

He increased it to 20 years

How did Marius change the type of soldier who were enrolled in the legions?

He allowed the poor/peasant to enlist

What is capite censi translated?

Head census

How did Marius change the tactical grouping of his legions?

He regrouped the soldiers of a legoion into 10 cohorts rather than 30 maniples

How many men in a cohort?

486 men

Who were the hastati?

Front-row skirmishers

Who were the principes?

Main body of infantry

Who were the trairii?

Veteren troops who stayed behind main body.

Who supplied the soldiers' equipment in the time of Marius ( and later)?


Who was most likely to have introduced the short sword to the Roman army?


What did Marius base his soldiers' military training on?


What change did Marius make to the pilum?

He replaced the third pin with a wooden nail

What symbol was give to the legions by Marius?

The golden eagle

What fitness training did Marius introduce (or reintroduce)?

Running/marching under full kit and carrying one's own baggage

WHy did his soldiers call themselves Marius' mules?

The amount of baggage they had to carry

After Marius' reforms, what did soldeirs expect when they retired from the army?

Rewards such as allocations of land and social advancement

What Was the name of the process by which a Roman became Consul?

Cursus Anorum

What were the three positions ending in Consul?

quaestor, preator, consul.

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