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36 terms

Anatomy Ch. 15: The Urinary System

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Dilute urine would have the specific gravity closest to _______
1.001
Urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the _______
urethra
The average adult bladder is moderately full with ______ urine inside of it
500 mL
The voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscles at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor is called the ______
external urethral sphincter
The process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or _______
micturition
When carbon dioxide enters the blood from tissue cells, it is converted to ______ for transport within blood plasma
bicarbonate ions
One of the most common bacteria to infect/inflame the urinary tract and cause urethritus and cystitis is ______
escherichia coli
Smooth muscle in the walls of the urine move urine alone to the bladder by ______
peristalsis
How does the respiratory system respond to blood that has become acidic?
breathing rate increases
Tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder
ureter
Muscular sac suitable for temporary urine storage
bladder
Transports urine and sperm in males
urethra
In males, this organ is surrounded by the prostate
bladder
Inflammation on this organ is called cystitis
bladder
The medial indentation where the ureter, blood vessels, and nerves are connected to the kidney is called the renal _____
hillum
There are three regions of the kidney; the outermost region is known as the renal ______
cortex
The blood vessel carrying blood from the aorta into the kidney is the renal _______
artery
Specific gravity is the term used to compare how much heavier urine is than distilled ____
water
The involuntary sphincter that keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed is called the ______ urethral ____
internal, sphincter
The inability to voluntarily control the external urethral sphincter is known as _______
incontinence
Renal pyramids are separated by extensions of cortex-like tissue called the renal _____
columns
The functional unit of a kidney that filters blood and forms urine is the ______
nephron
The three processes occurring in the nephron that lead to the formation of urine are glomerular ______, tubular ______ and tubular ______
filtration, secretion, reabsorption
Urine pH is usually around a pH of ______
6
The smooth triangular region of the bladder base that is outlined by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the _______
trigone
About two-thirds of the body fluid is found within the living cells; this fluid is called the _______ fluid
intracellular
A strong acid will dissociate and liberate more _____ ions in water than a weak acid
hydrogen
The abnormal condition that results from the lack of ADH release, causing huge amounts of very dilute urine to be voided, is called ______ insipidus
diabetes
The need to urinate frequently at night, which plagues over 50% of the elderly is called ______
nocturia
The blood vessel directly feeding the glomerulus with blood form the cortical radiate artery is the _______
afferent arteriole
The process that removes ions such as potassium and hydrogen from the blood and places them into the nephron for removal from the body as urine in known as tubular _____
secretion
Sodium ion content of the extracellular fluid (EFC) is largely regulated by an adrenal cortex hormone called ______
aldosterone
Highly sensitive cells known as osmoreceptors within the hypothalamus that react to changes in blood composition cause the release of ______ hormone
ADH
The primary urinary symptom of Addison's disease (hypoaldosteronism) is called ______
polyuria
Arterial blood pH between 7.0 and 7.35 is called physiological _______
acidosis
A feeling that is necessary to void, which is experienced more regularly in the elderly, is known as _______
urgency