96 terms

ARH VOCAB MIDTERM, ARH 204 MIDTERM WORKS

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Terms in this set (...)

Patrons
Financial support to an activity
Trumeau
Central support of doorway.
Polychromed Limestone
Painted sculpture.
Triptych
Three part altarpiece
Dendochronology
Age of wood.
Grisaille
Portrait looking like sculpture.
Sibylus
Pagan woman who made predictions about Christ.
Prophet
Author of old Testament.
Glaze
Thin layer of oil.
Atmospheric Perspective
Sense of depth using shift of color (green to blue) and blurring of space to suggest distance.
Form
Objects shape + structure
Composition
How an artist arranges his artwork.
Foreshortening
Illusion that one body part is farther than the other.
Sfumato
Smokey, hazy quality (Da vinci)
Media
Layer. Art style.
Bibliophile
Someone with a great love of books.
Court Artists
An artist who painted for a royal or noble family, sometimes commissioned or on a fixed salary.
Laity/Lay patrons
General people, religious people, not priests etc...
Vellum
Animal hide, expensive treated calf hides
Lunette
Arched window.
Woodcut; relief print
Artwork on paper.
Intaglio
Engravings into a surface, metal, not raised - engraved.
Crosshatching
Lay lines perpendicular to create grids, Lights + Darks.
Feather mosaic
Feathers overlaid to make mosaic.
Renaissance
Rebirth, Humanism + culture of antiquity, individual civic engagement,
Single Point Linear Perspective
Horizontal line, vanishing point, orthogonal lines, transversal lines
Gilding
Gold Leaf or paint.
Condottiere
Military Leader
Contrapposto
Twisted post, asymmetrical, distribution of weight on hips or body.
Rilievo Schiacciato
Flattened Relief.
Atmospheric (Aerial) perspective
technique of creating illusion of depth by depicting objects as paler in the distance.
Single Point Linear Perspective -
Horizontal line, vanishing point, orthogonal lines, transversal lines.
Memento Mori
Remember you must die.
Linear Perspective
Significance (Rationalization of sight) and application (use of perspective to creat meaning).
La Routa
(The Wheel) stairs -> the window where you could place a baby in the
Della Robbia
Technique invented by Luca Robbia, made decorations In terracotta sculpture covered in glaze (Roundels).
Loggia
Covered corridor or room with one open side.
Portico
Type of loggia on the front of building.
Arcade
Series of arches.
Façade
Front of building.
Spandrels
Space between arches.
Pediment
Triangular top on top of windows.
Stucco Medium
Plaster.
Fresco Medium
Painting done in watercolor on wet plaster.
Corinthian Capitals
Style invented in Athens, combines Volute + Acanthus leaves
Volute
Round spirals.
Modular Architecture
All elements based on a module.
Module
unit used as the basis for the dimensions of the design, usually in repeating equal sets.
Basilica
Style of building, originates from Rome legal buildings -> Basicilan Church.
Nave
Single long corridor, highest part.
Side Aisles
Side aisles on the side of nave separated by columns
Chapels
On the side of an aisle, small room.
Clerestory
Row of windows, lets light in.
Transept
Archway shaped like T, looks like cross.
Crossing
the crossway - of the T.
Triumphal Arch
Built for military victories, adopted as architecture.
Entablature
Horizontal superstructure supported by columns.
Columns
Round shaft, free - standing.
Pillaster
Flat to the wall, 2d, looks like column.
Engaged Column
Half column out, half column in wall.
Barreled vault
Half shaped barrel roof. Semicircle.
Classical Cornice
projecting, crowning element of entablature
Benches
Magnificence, civic good
Anachronistic
Inclusion of art not from that time period
Oculus
Below + above
Trompe Loeil di sotto in su
Realistic imagery to create objects that appear in 3d.
High Renaissance
Art historians considered High Renaissance to be dominated by Michelangelo, Raphael, Da Vinci, Harmony, Balance, calm, monumentality
Mannerism
Elongated Proportions, intellection sophistication, poses.
Cella
Inner chamber of temple
Stylobate
Base on which columns were build for supporting both column and building
Columns
...
Nicola Pisano, pulpit of the baptistery, Pisa, 1259-1260
•Sculptor + Architect, Started inSouthern Italy under Frederick's Rule
•Settled in Pisa, specialized in Marble, Created the Pulpit.
•Used: Trefoil, supporting clumns, large capitals, influenced by classical relief (Roman) scultpures, Influence by gothic art (French) and Christian Motifs.
Giotto, The Ognissanti Madonna, 1306-10, tempera on panel, 128 x 80 1/4″ (325 x 204 cm).
•Changed art style, drapery pattern, body outlines, folds, curved (French-Gothic) Naturalistic approach.
•From Florentine
•Despite interest
in Naturalism, respected age old techniques
•Religious art - Mary + Jesus. - Madonna's body is asserted, thin fabric - can see her tits
•Were gold highlights - Dimensionality, substance and bulk -> qualities suppressed in favor of a spiritual immateriality in Byzantine art
•Traditional gold outline, Halo effects, other pinks purples have ethereal effect
•Oversized imposing Madonna, dignified Jesus, pious angels.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City and Peaceful Country, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338-1339.
•Painter - Fresco, Illusionistic representation, Secular Themes
•Sienese art (Rivel of Florentine) Allegory of good government, Human> religion
•Depicted urban and rural effects of government, Pure landscape art is rare
•Personification of safety by the Council of 9, those who enforce law with penalty
Robert Campin, Mérode Altarpiece, ca. 1425-1428
•From Tournai
•Carved live sized biblical figures
•Philip wanted to be seen as elite(Duke of burgundy)
•Created Carthusian monastery, place of worship + memorial for him
•Monks prayed from him and god
•Move towards naturalism, French Gothic Jamb Statues
•Portrait-like, natural appearance
Jan Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (The Arnolfini Portrait), 1434. Oil on wood, approx. 2' 8″ x 1' 11 1/2″.
•Duke of Burgundy Philip the good
•Diplomat, from Netherlandish and moved to Bruges, Famous for oil paint on wood
•Mirror reflections, Dog - fidelity, eyes return gaze, business proposal, his wife.
Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, approx. 11' 6″ x 7' 6".
•Moved around by napoleon + eventually rescued.
•Polyptych altarpiece
•Jan died before completion
•Naturalism
•Several groupings of figures holy figures, Virgin Mary, Christ, Asdam eve, St John Baptist + St john Evangelist, Sinners, Clergy, Soldiers, Holy spirit dove
•Comissioned by jodocus Vjid
•Gothic, Byzantine and roman traditions.
Limbourg Brothers (Pol, Herman, Jan), January, folio 1v, from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1411-16, ink on vellum, 8 7/8" x 5 3/8"
•Manuscript Illuminators, Ink of vellum, Illusionistic capabilities
•12 months of tasks for the Duke of berry
•Designed to flatter patron, the duke,
•Religius and secular art, naturalism in architecture
•Duke was a bibliophile
•Arrangement of elements, appears fatter, halo effect, top has the Trojan war
Attributed to Michael Wolgemut, God the Father Enthroned, from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1488-1493, woodcut
•Print became popular, woodcut -ideal medium
•Illustrations of the book furnished by Wolgemut, religious iconography, flowing vegetation, Intricate small figures
•Deutsche style, gothic frontispiece.
Donatello, David, ca. 1440-1460, approx. 5' tall, bronze
•Former apprentice of Ghiberti - Greco Roman Sculptural principles
•Classical contrapposto, proportion of balancing/body parts
•Middle ages - Nudity was indecent
•Sensuous beauty of gods, relaxed - Medici family was identified as humanists, they identified with Florence therefore David was important to them
•Some scholars assume the statue was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici
•Once Medicis were exiled, it was moved
Masaccio, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1428. Fresco, 21' x 10' 5".
•Fresco style - Descendent of Giotto - Carried on calm monumental style
•Highly successful at the perspective system
•Broke from master's gothic style, art personifies innovative spirit
•Triumphal arch, Unity + harmony of fresco due to structure
•Christian faith, depiction of space
•Humanism and religion were not mutually exclusive
•Unknown donor portraits
Brunelleschi, Loggia of the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Foundling Hospital), Florence, begun 1419
•Sculpture + architect + Single point linear perspective
•Created the use of domes
•"First building of the renaissance"
•Paid for by the silk and goldsmith guild
•Pediment, modules, stucco, capitals, la Routas
•Modular - 10 Braccia
Leon Battista Alberti, west façade of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, Italy, begun 1472
•Area of great tourism (Believed to have drops of Christ's blood)
•Alberti had dedication towards classical architecture, geometric perfection (math)
•Patron - Ludovico Gonzaga (Marquis of Mantua)
•Barrel vault, light goes in through a Fmassive arch on top of the entrance of the church
•No Side aisles, or rows of columns. Use of pediment
•Triumphal arch
Alberti and Bernardo Rossellino, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, ca. 1452-1470
•Believed design should reflect laws of nature
•Saw beauty in numerical ratios similar to Brunelleschi
•High classical age of ancient Greece
•Classic elements to contemporaneous buildings
•Different capitals for each story, made building appear lighter approaching top
•Flat façade, linear net unifying three levels
•Giovanni di Paolo was an important patron of this building
Perugino, Christ giving the keys to St. Peter's (Charge to Peter), Sistine Chapel, Rome, 1480s, fresco, 11' 5 ½" x 18' 8 ½"
•From Perugia - High Renaissance ideals - Compositional clarity, sense of spaciousness
•Commissioned by pope Sixtus IV -> Wall of Sistine chapel
•Foreground, middleground background
•All the apostles (identified by robe and tunics) Their eyes draw people to center.
•Artist put himself in the painting. Atmospheric perspective, one point linear perspective to create 3d
•Inclusion of art of Constantine, + Contrappasto
Piero della Francesca, Enthroned Madonna and Saints Adored by Federico da Montefeltro (Brera Altarpiece), ca. 1472-1474. Oil on wood, 8' 2" x 5' 7"
•Urbino, under Montefeltro's rule (military leader)-> Married to Battista
•Montefeltro wished to be in profile, disfigured face
•Child wears deep read coral beads.
•John the Baptist (Patron saint of battista), Inclusion of ostrich egg(near perfect oval, relation with Madonna's head in the center + Virgin birth)
•Duke is In armor (Wtf?) IN CHURCH
•Jewelry, rings, shining armour, diadems (great detail) <- Netherlandish influence
Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, ca. 1495-98. Oil and tempera on plaster. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
•Subject: Final Meal with apostles before someone betrays him
•Leonardo
•Dense with symbolic references, attributes identifies each apostle
•Equilateral triangle formed by Christ body, ideal geometric forms
•Three windows, four groups of three, Holy trinity
•Leonardo wanted better detail, so he did not use traditional fresco, the paint failed to adhere to the wall
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503-5, Oil on wood, 2' 6 ¼" x 1' 9"
•Da vinci has darker landscapes with soft lights. Uses Sfumato to create a Smokey hazy quality.
•Letter to duke of Milan on why she should hire him -> Last supper
•Portrait spoke about status and position, the portrait was never delivered to the patron, he decided to keep him.
•Painting has been deteriorated over time, the varnish has greened over time
•Creates an atmospheric effect around her with background
Michelangelo, Pietà, 1498-1500, Marble, 5' 8 ½" high. Saint Peter's, Vatican City, Rome
•Michelangelo trains with Ghirlandaio, mostly self taught in sculpture
•Born + trained in Florence -> moves to rome
•Pieta - Patronage - Cardinal Jean de Bilheras La graulas
•Subject - Pieta -> Pity Piety
•Function -> Tomb
•Location - St Peter's Rome Style Basilica
•Challenge - Full grown naked man in lap
•Madonna and child connections
Michelangelo, David, from Piazza della Signoria, Florence, 1501-1504. Marble, 17' high
•Subject: Davkd - Old testament hero
•Patronage - Cathedral building committee (Opera del Duomo)
•Style: Art of Greek/Roman
•Location: Accademia Gallery
•Significance: biblical hero, before victory, not as a victor but thinking being
•Heroic choice and heroic action
Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Italy, 1511-1512, fresco.
•God on the right, Adam on the left
•Commissioned by Pope Julius II
•God has royal garments, mysterious bubble, all power ruler, Adam is lounging, but they are both parallel to each other, proving that man has been created In the image of likeness of god
•Bodys are muscular and twisting, Hands draw people to where they touch, not the middle.
Michelangelo, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican Palace, 1508-1512
•Ceiling is really high, multiple paintings, Michelangelo hated this commission
•Comissioned by pope Julius II
•The creation story (right to left), Three stories of Noah, Prophets and Sibyls, Creation and downfall of Adam and eve, Ancestors of digits
•Dramatic gestures, light and darkness separation from heavens, earth power
•Originally wanted Michel to do his tomb -> nevermind
Raphael, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, 1509-1511.
•Greatest Mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists , plato and Aristotle in the middle
•Showing differences between their philosophies
•Ptolemy, Zoroaster, Pythagorous, and Raphael himself
•Higher, truler reality, otherworldly reality Constrasting the two main philosophies
•Pope Julius II
•Subject: Branches of learning
•Ideal high renaissance (Connection to classical world, single point perspective. Philosophers , math guys, scientists)
Donato Bramante, Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, begun 1502
•Architect who introduced High Renaissance style in architecture, trained in Urbino, most of his productions have not survived
•Milan -> Rome Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of spain.
•Small Circular chapel erected in Rome, the design inspired by a classical temple. Bramante added a dome, and chose Tuscan Doric column order for decoration, with classical entablature.
•Meant to mark the exact spot of St peter's martyrdom
•Subject - Little Temple. Tiempietto, Location: Janiculum hill
•Significance, St peter, very small. Used Cella and Stylobate
Cristoforo Foppa Caradosso, reverse side of a medal showing Bramante's designs for St. Peter's, Rome, 1506. Bronze, 2 ¼" diameter.
Bramante's unexecuted design for St peters, with a large dome, smaller domes, and walls and piers ^ Can use in previous
Medal that shows how Bramante planned to accomplish the building. Julius II appears on the front of the medal
Roman practice of placing images of important buildings on reverse side of coins.
Palladio, Villa Rotonda, near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1550-1570'
Italian Venetian, writes the Four books of Architecture
•Widely considered to be the most influential due to his books ,
•Roman Classical models, four facades emphasizing balance, clarity and uniformity
•Completely symmetrical with a dome, based on pantheon
•Commissioned by Poalo Almerico
•Also called Belvedare (Beautiful view)
•High Renaissance principles + ideals -> Centralized plans, emphasis on symmetry + harmony, Scultpural, Classical form with no experimentals