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142 terms

Psych of Personality - Ch 4 Adler

Mostly taken from: Hergenhahn, B. R. & Olson, M. H. (2007). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (7th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. and DeSouza, E. (2010). Manual for PSY 233 (PIP Packet # 7). Normal, IL: PIP Printing.
STUDY
PLAY
usefulness
In scientific theorizing, the ability of an hypothesis to generate predictions about experiences we might observe. In Adler's theory, the ability of a goal to foster productive living and enhance one's life.
neglect
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) physical or mental infirmity, 2) spoiling or pampering, 3) __________.
A
Adler's final theoretical position was that healthy adults seek: A) a perfect or superior society, B) masculinity, C) admiration from their peers, D) pleasure.
first memories
A person's earliest recollections. Such recollections provide the basis for a person's worldview, fictional final goal, and lifestyle. Adler believed that as one's personality changes so do first memories.
A
For Adler, unconscious meant that which is: A) not understood, B) anxiety-provoking, C) traumatic, D) repressed.
Freud
Freud or Adler? Considered that the goal of therapy was to discover repressed early memories.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Emphasized conscious mind.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Considered social motives primary.
superiority complex
Psychological condition that exists when a person concentrates too much on his or her own need to succeed while ignoring the needs of others. Such a person tends to be vain, domineering and arrogant.
Freud
Freud or Adler? Emphasized the unconscious mind.
avoiding type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle of avoiding the attempt to solve life's problems, thereby escaping possible defeat. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
lack social interest
What do both people with an inferiority complex and people with a superiority complex share?
superiority complex
Neurotic pattern in which the individual exaggerates his/her performance.
self-accusation
Form of neurotic aggression that involves wallowing in self-torture and guilt, the ultimate purpose of which is to hurt other people.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Considered that Humans are free to determine their own personality.
4 to 5
Age at which Adler said our "style of life" is formed.
A
According to Adler, each individual must solve three major tasks in life, all of which require a well-developed social interest. For example, one task involves choosing and pursuing a career that makes one feel worthwhile. That is, through constructive work the person helps to advance society. This description exemplifies which type of tasks?: A) Occupational tasks, B) Societal tasks, C) Love tasks, D) Hedonistic tasks, E) None of the above.
individual
School of psychology developed by Adler.
social interest
An urge in human nature to adapt one's self to the conditions of one's environment and society.
difficult to falsify
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) _________, 2) overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factors), 3) overly simplistic
overcoming inferiority
Two fundamental human motives, according to Adler, were 1) _______ and 2) becoming superior.
becoming superior
Two fundamental human motives, according to Adler, were 1) overcoming inferiority and 2) _______.
C
_________ involves judging people with standards so high that no real person can live up to them: A) Distancing, B) Excuses, C) Idealization, D) Solicitude.
C
__________ was, according to Adler, an innate need that all humans have to live in harmony and friendship with other humans, and to aspire toward the development of a perfect society: A) Fictional finalism, B) Sex, C) Social interest, D) The creative self.
spacing between children
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) __________, 2) gender, 3) your subjective view of your position.
inferiority complex
What occurs when feelings of inferiority overwhelm to the extent that you lack social interest?
importance of social variables
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) _________, 2) widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement), 3) prevention more important than cure.
inferiority complex
Neurotic pattern in which the individual feels highly inadequate.
mistaken lifestyle
A style of life that belies one's actual capabilities and strengths.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Analyzed dreams to learn about lifestyles.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Considered future goals an important source of motivation.
masculine protest
The compensation for one's perceived inferiorities.
the end/inflexible/fixed
Adler's theory says that a neurotic personality regards their fictional final goal as ________.
as if
According to Hans Vaihinger, this philosophy says that people experience the world through sensations provided by sensory stimulation; then people invent fictions to make sense of their subjective experiences.
second
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position has a pace-maker to help motivate their development?
creative self
The aspect of the person that interprets and makes meaningful the experience of the organism and establishes the lifestyle.
superiority complex
What happens when striving for superiority becomes exaggerated to the extent that you lose social interest?
A
Humans will typically develop beliefs and then act "as if" those beliefs are true; this describes Adler's concept of: A) fictional finalism, B) the creative self, C) existential imagination, D) social interest.
TRUE
True/false: Adler's theory says that how we perceive things is more important that objective reality.
birth order
Adler's methods of research: 1) ________, 2) early memories, 3) dream analysis, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
masculine protest/aggression and power
Our natural response to subjective inferiority.
Fundamental fact of life
Adler replaced his earlier contention that people seek power to overcome feelings of inferiority with the contention that they aspire to become superior or perfect. Adler referred to the latter contention as the fundamental fact of life. Adler's final position was that healthy persons aspire toward social rather than individual perfection
A
According to Adler, which of the following is most instrumental in the formation of a lifestyle: A) a child's perception of the major events in his or her life, B) a child's experience of physical reality, C) the warm, loving care of a child by a parent, D) the harsh treatment of a child by a parent.
safeguarding strategies
Mechanisms neurotics use to preserve what little self-esteem and illusions of superiority a mistaken lifestyle can provide.
mistaken lifestyle
Any lifestyle that is not aimed at socially useful goals. In other words, any lifestyle that minimizes social interest.
2,1, 3
Development of Adler's theory progressed through these stages in which order? 1) subjective inferiority and masculine protest, 2) organ inferiority and compensation, 3) Superiority innate drive toward wholeness and perfect society
socially useful type person
Person exhibiting a lifestyle containing a healthy amount of social interest. Such a lifestyle is not "mistaken."
aggression
As a safeguarding strategy, aggression can take three forms: depreciation, accusation, and self-accusation.
Freud
Freud or Adler? Viewed the mind as consisting of warring factions.
Fictional finalism
Fictional future goal to which a person aspires. This goal is the end to which the person is aspiring, and his or her lifestyle is the means to that end. Also called a guiding self-ideal and guiding fiction.
B
________ is the tendency to overvalue one's own accomplishments and to undervalue the accomplishments of others: A) Accusation, B) Depreciation, C) Self-accusation, D) Distancing.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Was optimistic about human existence.
Adler, Horney, Erikson
Personality theorists who fit the Socio-cultural paradigm
societal
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) occupational, 2) _________, 3) love and marriage.
birth order
One of the topics that Adler studied in order to understand personality. He believed that it created different situations to which children must adjust and that this adjustment may have an influence on personality development.
spoiling or pampering
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) physical or mental infirmity, 2) __________, 3) neglect.
ruling-dominant type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that dominates and rules people. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
overly optimistic
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) difficult to falsify, 2) overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factorsand overemphasizes early experience), 3) _________
gender
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) spacing between children, 2) __________, 3) your subjective view of your position.
creative self
Free element of the personality that allows the person to choose between alternative fictional goals and lifestyles. It is the differential exercise of this creative power that is mainly responsible for individual differences.
ruling-dominant
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ________, 2) getting leaning, 3) avoiding.
dream analysis
Adler believed that the primary purpose of dreams was to create emotions that could be used by dreamers to support their mistaken lifestyles. Dreams, then, were analysed to learn about the lifestyles of the dreamers.
pampering
According to Adler, ________ causes the Oedipus complex
organ inferiority
Condition that exists when some organ of the body does not develop normally. Such a condition can stimulate compensation or overcompensation, which is healthy, or can result in an inferiority complex, which is unhealthy.
inferiority
Feelings of being inadequate that arise out of childhood experiences.
family constellation
One's position in within the family in terms of birth order among siblings, and the presence or absence of parents or other care-givers.
B
According to Vaihinger, fictions must be evaluated only in terms of their: A) validity, B) practical value, C) ability to make humans happy, D) correspondence to objective reality.
distancing
Safeguarding strategy used by neurotics that involves creating barriers between themselves and their problems in life. According to Adler it can take the forms of moving backward or the use of childlike behavior in order to gain attention and control: standing still or the avoidance of failure by not attempting to do anything; hesitating or becoming involved in diversions until it is too late to confront a problem; constructing obstacles or the creation of minor obstacles so that they can be overcome, thereby increasing the neurotic's false feeling of worth; experiencing anxiety is caused by the neurotic's inability to solve life's problems; the greater the ineptitude, the greater the anxiety and therefore, the greater the need for this strategy; and using the exclusion tendency or the neurotic's tendency to confine their lives to the few areas in which they can dominate.
overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factors)
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) difficult to falsify, 2) _________, 3) overly optimistic
only child
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position may develop a view that the world is a dangerous place if the parents are overly concerned with his/her health?
Freud
Freud or Adler? considered future goals unimportant
subjective inferiority
According to Adler, what is the natural source of motivation for people?
love and marriage
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) occupational, 2) societal, 3) _________.
Adler
Freud or Adler? Considered that the goal of therapy was to encourage a lifestyle that incorporates social interest.
depreciation
Neurotic safeguarding strategy whereby one's accomplishments are over-valued and the accomplishments of others are undervalued. It can take the form of idealization, whereby standards used to judge people are so high that no real person could live up to them and is thus depreciated. Another form is solicitude, whereby neurotics act as if other people could not get along without them.
masculine protest
Attempting to become more powerful by being more masculine, and thereby less feminine. According to Adler's earlier theorizing, both men and women attempt to gain power by becoming more like the cultural ideal of the man.
compensation
Making up for or overcoming a weakness
only child
This child is like a first-born child who was never dethroned. Only children, according to Adler, are often sweet, affectionate, and charming in order to appeal to others. Adler did not consider this birth position as dangerous as the first-born's position.
Excuses
Safeguarding strategy whereby neurotics use their symptoms as excuses for their shortcomings.
social interest
What label did Adler give to the innate need to live in harmony and friendship with others?
compensation
Making up for a weakness, such as organ inferiority, by emphasizing functions that substitute for the weakness.
Striving for superiority
What Adler called "the fundamental fact of life." According to Adler's final theoretical position, it is not the search for the power necessary to overcome feelings of inferiority that motivates humans; rather, it is the constant search for perfection or superiority. However, Adler stressed the perfection of society rather than individual perfection.
Accusation
Form of neurotic aggression that involves blaming other people for one's shortcomings and seeking revenge against those people.
fictional final goal
According to Adler, what you value most, how you would describe yourself in the future, what you are striving for.
D
Sulloway found that the most important variable determining whether a scientific innovation was accepted was the __________ of the scientist: A) intelligence, B) family size, C) socioeconomic status, D) birth order.
feelings of inferiority
Feelings that one has of being inferior, whether or not these feelings are justified by real circumstances. Such feelings, according to Adler, can lead either to positive accomplishments or to an inferiority complex.
inferiority complex
Psychological condition that exists when a person is overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority to the point at which nothing can be accomplished.
B
Due mainly to the cultural conditions under which Adler wrote, he equated power and strength with: A) femininity, B) masculinity, C) an education, D) money.
family atmosphere
The quality of emotional relationships among members of the family.
spoiling or pampering
Conditions that cause a child to believe it is the responsibility of others to satisfy his or her needs.
Freud
Freud or Adler? Was pessimistic about human existence.
D
For the Adlerian therapist, the goal of psychotherapy is to provide the client with : A) fictions around which to organize one's life, B) coping mechanisms, C) inner peace, D) a lifestyle that contains an adequate amount of social interest.
prevention more important than cure
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) importance of social variables, 2) widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement), 3) _________.
first
According to Adler, which birth order position is the worst?
dream analysis
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) early memories, 3) ________, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
getting-leaning type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that expects everything to be given to him or her by others. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
avoiding
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ruling-dominant, 2) getting leaning, 3) ________.
C
Because of its concern with the questions concerning the meaning of human existence, Adler's theory can be considered: A) deterministic, B) psychoanalytic, C) existential, D) none of the above.
Freud
Freud or Adler? Considered that personality was completely determined by heredity and environmental factors (mechanistic)
Adler
Freud or Adler? Considered that the mind was an integrated whole
lifestyle
One's unique way to strive for superiority, to attain the fictional final goals in life. Fixed by age 4-5.
overcompensation
Process by which, through considerable effort, a previous weakness is converted into a strength. An example is when a frail child works hard to become an athlete.
culture
Shared, learned behavior and meanings that are acquired by people in a society that are passed on from one generation to another, for promoting adaptation. Represented externally by artifacts, roles, settings and institutions. Represented internally through beliefs, expectations, values and epistemology.
socially useful
According to Adler, what kind of person has well developed social interest and deals with problems in a harmonious way with other people?
first-born child
This child is the focus of attention until the birth of a sibling "dethrones" him or her. The loss felt by the first-born child when the second child is born often creates bitterness that causes problems later in life. Adler considered this to be the most troublesome birth position.
second
According to Adler, which birth order position is the best?
masculine protest
Striving to become more masculine - to posses more aggression and power.
physical or mental infirmity
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) __________, 2) spoiling or pampering, 3) neglect.
getting leaning
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ruling-dominant, 2) ________, 3) avoiding.
your subjective view of your position
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) spacing between children, 2) gender, 3) __________.
widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement)
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) importance of social variables, 2) _________, 3) prevention more important than cure.
over compensation
Adler's term for converting a weakness into a strength.
individual psychology
Adler's term to describe his theory. The term was used to stress his belief that each person is an integrated whole striving to attain future goals and attempting to find meaning in life while working harmoniously with others.
youngest child
According to Adler, the second-worst birth position after the firstborn. This child is often spoiled and therefore loses courage to succeed by his or her own efforts.
tool/discardable/means to an end/flexible/adjustable
Adler's theory says that a healthy personality regards their fictional final goal as _______.
finalism
A principle that reflects the concept of goal orientation.
early memories
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) ________, 3) dream analysis, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
lifestyle
The primary means by which one attempts to attain his or her self-created or fictional goals in life.
C
According to Adler, which of the following gives each individual personal freedom: A) lifestyle, B) masculine protest, C) creative self, D) social interest.
neglecting
Condition that causes the child to feel worthless and angry and to be distrustful of everyone.
second-born child
This child is very ambitious because he or she is constantly attempting to catch up and surpass the older sibling. Of all the birth orders, Adler believed that the second-born was the best.
lifestyles
The specific ways in which an individual seeks to obtain the goal of superiority.
occupational
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) _________, 2) societal, 3) love and marriage.
A
The concept of fictional finalism gave Adler's theory a(n) __________ component: A) teleological, B) deterministic, C) hedonistic, D) irrational
D
According to Adler, the masculine protest occurs in cultures where: A) weakness is associated with males, B) males and females are equally powerful, C) power is associated with females, D) power is associated with males.
determines/creates
Adler concludes from Vaihinger's Philoslophy of "As if" that our perception of events ________ our worldview.
B
Because of its concern with the positive relationships among humans, Adler's theory can be considered: A) psychoanalytic, B) humanistic, C) deterministic, D) existential.
behavioral mannerisms
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) early memories, 3) dream analysis, 4) ________.
superiority
The ultimate fictional finalism, entailing the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do and to actualize one's potential.
Adler
Personality theorist who said that the person is an integrated whole, striving to achieve future goals that are compatible with society and allows individuals to live in compatibly with each other.
discard
Healthy people are able to _______ fictional final goals when they are no longer useful.
C
According to Vaihinger, fictions must be evaluated only in terms of their: A) correspondence to objective reality, B) ability to make humans happy, C) practical value, D) validity.
social interest
Innate potential to live in harmony and friendship with others and to aspire to the development of a perfect society.
youngest
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position may be pampered?
Freud
Freud or Adler? Considered biological motives primary.
physical inferiority
Actual physical weakness.
B
According to Adler, if a person with physical inferiorities becomes socially useful or not is mainly a matter of: A) early experience, B) choice, C) genetics, D) vocational counseling.
first
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position has been "dethroned"?
Freud
Freud or Adler? Analyzed dreams to detect contents of the unconscious mind.
overcompensation
An exceptional effort to make up for a weakness.
safeguarding tendency
A compensatory mechanism that ward off feelings of insecurity.
A
Sulloway found that among scientists, __________ were much more likely to accept scientific innovations than __________: A) later-borns ... first-borns, B) those in the social sciences... those in the physical sciences, C) those in the physical sciences ... those in the social sciences, D) first-borns ... later-borns.