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ARH test two vocab
Terms in this set (78)
Art that does not attempt to describe the appearance of visible forms but rather to transform them into stylized patterns or to alter them in conformity to ideals.
A lead strip used in the making of leaded or stained-glass windows. Cames have an indented vertical groove on the sides into which the separate pieces of glass are fitted to make the overall design.
The principal Christian church in a diocese, built in the bishop's administrative center and housing his throne (cathedra).
The solid baseline that indicates the ground plane on which the figure stands. In ancient representations, such as those of the Egyptians, the figures and the objects are placed on a series of ground lines to indicate depth (space in registers).
A circle of light that surrounds and frames the heads of emperors and Christian saints to signify power and/or sanctity. Also known as a nimbus.
The use of differences in size to indicate relative importance. For example, with human figures, the larger the figure, the greater his or her importance.
A process in art through which artists strive to make their forms and figures attain perfection, based on pervading cultural values and/or their own personal ideals.
A tall, narrow window crowned by a sharply pointed arch, typically found in Gothic architecture.
An Islamic institution of higher learning, where teaching is focused on theology and law.
A recess or niche that distinguishes the wall oriented toward Mecca (qibla wall) in a mosque.
A building used for communal Muslim worship.
A style of depiction in which the physical appearance of the rendered image in nature seems to be accurately described.
The direction of Mecca. In a mosque, the qibla wall (containing the mihrab) is oriented toward Mecca.
A round window, often filled with stained glass set into tracery patterns in the form of wheel spokes, common on the façades of the naves and transepts of Gothic cathedrals.
Small pieces of stone, glass, or other material that are assembled to create a mosaic.
Linear networks within a window opening or applied to a flat surface that often create elaborate decorative patterns. In plate tracery a series of openings are cut through the wall, while in bar tracery they are formed by bars of stone or wood called mullions inserted within large openings in the wall.
The arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave. The point where the nave and transept intersect is called the crossing. Beyond the crossing lies the sanctuary, whether apse, choir, or chevet.
A book consisting of a series of paintings or prints (album leaves).
Animal style or interlace
A type of imagery used in Europe and western Asia during the ancient and medieval periods, characterized by animals or animal-like forms arranged in intricate patterns or combats.
Book of Hours
A private prayer book, having a calendar, services for the canonical hours, and, sometimes, special prayers.
Handwriting as an art form.
A book, or a group of manuscript pages (folios), held together by stitching or other binding on one side.
A painting on paper or parchment used as illustration and/or decoration for manuscripts or albums. The illustrators are referred to as illuminators. Also: the technique of decorating manuscripts with such paintings.
Art that attempts faithful description of the appearance of the real world, using pictorial devices such as perspective and foreshortening.
A monochromatic style of painting developed in China using black ink with gray washes.
A style of painting that reflects the taste of the educated class of East Asian intellectuals and scholars. Aspects include an appreciation for the antique, small scale, and an intimate connection between maker and audience.
A handwritten book or document.
The materials from which a work of art is made.
The institution or person who commissions or finances a work of art.
A fine animal skin prepared for writing and painting. See also parchment.
Wares made of baked clay.
A technique in which powdered glass is applied to a metal surface in a decorative design. After firing, the glass forms an opaque or transparent substance that is fixed to the metal background. Also: an object created with enamel technique.
A decorative process in which pieces of one material are set into the surface of an object fashioned from a different material.
A type of extremely hard and fine white ceramic first made by Chinese potters in the eighth century ce. Made from a mixture of kaolin and petuntse, porcelain is fired at a very high temperature, and the final product has a translucent surface.
The technique in needlework of decorating fabric by stitching designs and figures with threads. Also: the material produced by this technique.
A pictorial textile in which the colored weft threads that form the pattern or pictures are woven into an un-dyed warp during the process of making the fabric itself.
An underground cemetery consisting of tunnels on different levels, having niches for burials, urns, and sarcophagi, and often incorporating rooms (cubicula).
A series of images depicting a story or theme intended to be displayed together.
Within the depicted space of an artwork, the area that is closest to the picture plane.
The illusion created on a flat surface in which figures and objects appear to recede or project sharply into space. Accomplished according to the rules of perspective.
A painting technique in which water-based pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster and are absorbed into it, becoming part of the wall itself (called buon fresco). Fresco secco is created by painting on dried plaster, and the color can flake off. Murals made by both these techniques are called frescos.
Sliding doors covered with paper, used in traditional Japanese construction. Fusuma are often highly decorated with paintings and colored backgrounds.
Adopted from the Italian term meaning "a day's work," a giornata is the section of a fresco plastered and painted in a single day.
Art that attempts faithful description of the appearance of the real world, using pictorial devices such as perspective and foreshortening.
Within the depicted space of an artwork, the area that takes up the middle distance of the image. See also foreground.
In painting, the process of creating the illusion of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface by the use of light and shade. In sculpture, the process of molding a three-dimensional form out of a malleable substance.
Literally, "wall-like." A large painting or decoration, created either directly on the wall, or created separately and affixed to the wall.
Any line running back into the represented space of a picture perpendicular to the imagined picture plane. In linear perspective, all orthogonals converge at a single vanishing point in the picture and are the basis for a grid that maps out the internal space of the image. An orthogonal plan is any plan for a building or city that is based exclusively on right angles, such as the grid plan of many modern cities.
A system for representing three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface.
Atmospheric perspective: A method of rendering the effect of spatial distance by subtle variations in color and clarity of representation.
Intuitive perspective: A method of giving the impression of recession by visual instinct, not by the use of an overall system or program.
Oblique perspective: An intuitive spatial system in which a building or room is placed with one corner in the picture plane, and the other parts of the structure recede to an imaginary vanishing point on its other side.
One-point and multiple-point perspective (also called linear, scientific, or mathematical perspective): A method of creating the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface by delineating a horizon line and multiple orthogonal lines. These recede to meet at one or more points on the horizon (called vanishing points), giving the appearance of spatial depth. Called scientific or mathematical because its use requires some knowledge of geometry and mathematics, as well as optics.
Reverse perspective: A Byzantine perspective theory in which the orthogonals or rays of sight do not converge on a vanishing point in the picture, but are thought to originate in the viewer's eye in front of the picture. Thus, in reverse perspective the image is constructed with orthogonals that diverge, giving a slightly tipped aspect to objects.
In a perspective system, the point on the horizon line at which orthogonals meet. A complex system can have multiple vanishing points.
A mixture of lime, sand, and other ingredients made into a material that can be easily molded or modeled. When dry, produces a durable surface used for covering walls or for architectural sculpture and decoration.
A term indicating the concern for rendering the impression of three-dimensional volumes in painting, usually achieved through modeling and the manipulation of light and shadow (chiaroscuro).
A view from above
A painting medium using pigment suspended in hot wax.
A substance made from glue, gypsum, and/or chalk forming the ground or the priming layer of a wood panel or canvas. Provides a smooth surface for painting.
The application of paper-thin gold leaf or gold pigment to an object made from another medium (for example, a sculpture or painting). Usually used as a decorative finishing detail.
A side panel of a triptych or polyptych (usually found in pairs), which was hinged to fold over the central panel. Wings often held the depiction of the donors and/or subsidiary scenes relating to the central image.
An artwork made up of three panels. The panels may be hinged together so the side segments (wings) fold over the central area.
The use of strong chiaroscuro and artificially illuminated areas to create a dramatic contrast of light and dark in painting.
Any area of an artwork that is shown through various technical means to be in shadow. The technique for making this effect is "shading."
A painting medium made by blending egg or egg yolks with water, pigments, and occasionally other materials, such as glue.
A handheld support used by artists for arranging colors and mixing paint during the process of painting. Also: the choice of a range of colors used by an artist in a particular work, or typical of his or her style. In ancient Egypt, a flat stone used to grind and prepare makeup.
Any painting executed on a wood support. The wood is usually planned to provide a smooth surface. A panel can consist of several boards joined together.
Paper-thin sheets of hammered gold that are used in gilding.
An image representing a sacred figure or event in the Byzantine (later the Orthodox) Church. Icons were venerated by the faithful, who believed their prayers were transmitted through them to God.
A picture that expresses or embodies an intangible concept or idea.
A picture that recounts an event drawn from a story, either factual (e.g., biographical) or fictional. In continuous narrative, multiple scenes from the same story appear within a single compositional frame.
Any painting executed with the pigments suspended in a medium of oil. Oil paint has particular properties that allow for greater ease of working (among others, a slow drying time, which allows for corrections, and a great range of relative opaqueness of paint layers, which permits a high degree of detail and luminescence).
A metal instrument used in engraving to cut lines into the metal plate. The sharp end of the burin is trimmed to give a diamond-shaped cutting point, while the other end is finished with a wooden handle that fits into the engraver's palm.
A technique primarily used in printmaking and drawing, in which a set of parallel lines (hatching) is drawn across a previous set, but from a differing (usually right) angle. Cross-hatching gives a great density of tone and allows the artist to create the illusion of shadows efficiently.
An intaglio printmaking process by which a metal (usually copper) plate is directly inscribed by means of a pointed instrument (stylus). The resulting design of scratched lines is inked, wiped, and printed. Also: the print made by this process.
A single printing of a book or print. An edition includes only what is printed at a particular moment, usually pulled from the same press by the same publisher.
An intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is coated with acid-resistant resin and then inscribed with a stylus in a design, revealing the plate below. The plate is then immersed in acid, and the design of exposed metal is eaten away by the acid. The resin is removed, leaving the design etched permanently into the metal and the plate ready to be inked, wiped, and printed.
A term referring to those arts that are drawn or printed and that utilize paper as primary support.
A single print. Each and every impression of a print is by nature different, given the possibilities for variation inherent in the printing process, which requires the plate to be inked and wiped between every impression.
A Japanese term for a type of popular art that flourished from the sixteenth century, particularly in the form of color woodblock prints. Ukiyo-e prints often depicted the world of courtesans and actors, as well as landscapes and myths.
A print made from one or more carved wooden blocks. In Japan, woodblock prints were made using multiple blocks carved in relief, usually with a block for each color in the finished print. See also woodcut.
A type of print made by carving a design into a wooden block. Ink is applied to the block with a roller. As the ink only touches the surface areas and lines remaining between the curved-away parts of the block, it is these areas and lines that make the print when paper is pressed against the inked block, leaving the carved-away parts of the design to appear blank. Also: the process by which the woodcut is made.
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