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50 terms

Chapter 18/19 Blood/Heart Test

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Erythrocyte
Red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream.
Leukocyte
A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.
Platelet
A cell fragment that plays an important part in forming blood clots.
Plasma
Colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.
Hematocrit
The percentage of erythrocytes to total blood volume.
Hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body.
Hematopoiesis
Formation and development of red and white blood cells from stem cells. Occur in bone marrow.
Hemocytoblast
Stem cell that gives rise to all blood cells, resides in the red bone marrow.
EPO
Glycoprotein hormone produced by kidney. Stimulates development/ production of RBCs.
Anemia
Blood having abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity, due to a reduced number or size of the red blood cells.
Polycythemia
A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.
Intrinsic Factor
A substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Granulocytes
A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
Agranulocytes
A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes.
Neutrophils
The most abundant type of white blood cell. They are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
Eosinophils
White blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates.
Basophils
A type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.
Lymphocytes
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.
Monocytes
An agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.
Leukemia
Cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells.
Hemostasis
Stoppage of blood flow.
Thrombus
A blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin.
Embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
Thromboembolytic disorders
Undesirable clot formation.
Agglutinogens
Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.
Agglutinins
Specific antibodies formed in the blood.
Atrium
Upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle.
Ventricle
A chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries.
Aorta
The largest artery in the body; the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries.
Vena Cava
Largest vein in the body; either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Pulmonary Artery
One of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary Vein
Any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Hypertension
Abnormally high blood pressure.
HbF
Fetal Hemoglobin.
Erythropoeisis
Process of making new red blood cells.
Aplastic anemia
Severe form of anemia that develops as a consquences of loss of functioning red bone marrow.
Pernicious anemia
Progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Sickle-Cell anemia
Low O2 from irregular shaped RBC , joint pain, thrombosis, anemia fever.
Arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
Blood Alkalinity
pH between 7.35 to 7.45.
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor and a mother who is Rh negative, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; this condition necessitates a blood transfusion to save the fetus.
Capillaries
The smallest blood vessels which connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins.
120/80
Normal blood pressure for a healthy adult.
SA node
A specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat.
AV node
Picks up electrical impulse from the SA node and causes ventricles to contract, causing blood to move into arteries
Bundle of His
A bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract.
Chordae tendineae
"Heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. They originate from the papillary muscles.
Diastolic
The blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the hearts venticles are relaxing.
Systolic
The blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries.