A medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power
Which best describes capitalism?
An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production, with the goal of making a profit
Which institution provided money lending services and Bills of Exchange?
What declined as a result of the Commercial Revolution?
What did the patronage of Brunelleschi help the Medici family gain?
Power and prestige
What title was given to Cosimo de Medici of Florence, Italy?
How did Pope Alexander VI split the Portugese and Spanish trade empires?
Portugal got subsaharan Africa, Asia, and Brazil. Spain got most of the Americas
What role did tales of crusading chivalry and conquest have on early conquerors?
Early conquerors sought adventure and wealth but most didn't get what they expected
Which is the best description of the beginnings of a globalization of trade?
What prompted the African network of slave trading?
The indian population depleted because of disease
Which was not one of the beneficial exchanges from global trade for the "New World"?
Potatoes and tomatoes increase population
Which of the following was not a type of rule found in Italian city-states at the time of the Renaissance?
Who worked among an international community of lawyers and churchmen at the papal court copying ancient works from classical manuscripts?
What did the study of the classics do for Niccolo Machiavelli?
Overall, how did the Renaissance not bring about significant loosening in the restrictions placed on women?
How did commissioning (patronage) works of art confirm the right to govern in Renaissance Italy?
Confirm moral leadership by demonstrating wisdom through good use of riches
What did it take to become a painter during the Renaissance?
Five years apprenticeship and two years journeyman's status
Describe Humanists belief in neo-Platonists
Plato's belief that eternal ideas such as beauty, truth, and goodness existed beyond everyday life
What did the "Peace of Lodi" do for the Italian city-states?
Erasmus wrote "The world is coming to its senses as if awakening out of a deep Sleep." Which of the following best describes what Erasmus meant by this quote?
Learning and Humanistic values that started with the Italian Renaissance had opened northern Europe into a new way of thinking
Besides forcing German German states to provide money for war against the Turks, which was another issue at the forefront in German opposition to the Roman papacy?
Pope appointed foreigners to key ecclesiastical posts
Which of the following was not a goal of the Counter Reformation or Catholic Reformation?
Strengthening the power of indulgences
What was the cumulative effect of the Northern Renaissance?
What did Erasmus say about the middle ages church in his work In Praise Of Folly?
Church was overwhelmed by empty, lifeless theology
What did Erasmus de-emphasize in his work Handbook Of The Christian Soldier?
What did nominalist beliefs emphasize?
Importance of living a good, simple life
Who believed that the church consisted of those god chose to save and no more, and that faith was the key to eternal salvation?
What did Jan Hus denounce popes as?
Why did Martin Luther's conscience grow troubled and uneasy?
He couldn't cure doubts with human values
Why did Martin Luther tack up his 95 Thesis to the castle church door in Wittenburg?
A reaction to abuse of indulgences
What were poverty, chastity, and obedience deemed as by Martin Luther?
What made religious reform an issue of the state?
Edict Of Worms
On what did Martin Luther and humanists differ?
Optimism of mankind
Why did Renaissance humanists admire Martin Luther?
He returned to original scripture for knowledge
What does cuius region, eius religio mean?
Religion of ruler, religion of state
Which of the following is an example of the Catholic Church's attempt to reign-in non-christian and protestant religions?
What was responsible for the papacy emerging more centralized, better organized, and more aggressive, like the most powerful European states?
Council Of Trent
How does the papacy's better organization and administered offices help historians today?
Records of demographics
As mentioned in your readings, what are two things that missionary work can connect with new religious beliefs spreading through the opening of the world?
What new age came from what the "Peace of Augsburg" and "Council of Trent" could not accomplish in ending rivalry between catholics and protestants, and the beginnings of different protestant denominations?
Wars Of Religion
Which of the following is not a factor that strengthened royal power?
National state has no religious control
Which of the following is not a part of the "Divine Right Of Kings" theory?
Exercise little power over feudal lords
When did the independent nation-state arrise?
Which of the following is not an achievement of absolute monarchs?
A nation's welfare depended on the ability of one person
What was absolutism an attempt to reassert?
Public order and cohesive state authority
Which of the following goes with this statement? "Strong, ambitious dynasties, which through advantageous marriages, inheritance, warfare, and treaties added to their dynastic domains and prestige"
It is how absolute states are characterized
What gradually became a part of the absolute state during the 17th century?
Administration, taxation, and military constriction
How did the reasons for war change as monarchs consolidated their power?
In principal in rivalry between catholic and protestant religions to reasons of the state
Which monarch felt he/she was without equal and stated, I am the state
While rulers of Europe relentlessly extended their power, what did they lay down the foundation of?
The modern, centralized state
What is the significance of the "Republic of Science"?
Focal point for exchange of scientific information
Which of the following os overall reason rulers wanted to propagate scientific learning?
To use in the general interest of their state
Which of the following is not a key point as to how scientific exchange occurred?
Protestant unity of Czech brethren
What is the name given to the procedure for gathering and testing ideas?
What did chemistry change people's thoughts of Earth, error, fire, water into?
Which of the following is not an area that had a role in the diffusion and expansion of the Enlightenment?
Foundation of Absolutism
Basically, what is "enlightened absolutism"?
Idea that monarchs would impose reforms that would benefit subjects
What did the United States take from England's glorious revolution?
Which enlightened philosopher believed in the natural rights of life, liberty, and property?
Of the following, which was not inspired by the enlightened philosophers?
Right the bear arms
What was the French Revolution the first to do?
Challenge absolute monarchy
What did the legacy of the French Revolution help to identify?
Identification to nation
What event was a pledge by the Third Estate to write a new constitution?
Tennis Court Oath
What was the slogan of the French Revolution?
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
What event began the demise of Louis the XVI?
Fish Market Womens March
Who was the most famous victim of the Reign Of Terror?
What did high inflation and instability by the Directory lead to?
Coup d´etat by Napoleon under suggestion of Sieyes
What was a system of consistent laws throughout the country of France?
What did Austrian foreign minister Metternich want to prevent thought the Congress of Vienna?
Future French aggression
From the Congress of Vienna, what was the concert of Europe?
What did Carl Marx and Friedrich Engels introduce as a new social system that would be a solution to the horrible conditions in factories?
The agrarian revolution and political stability were reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in England. Of the following, which is not an additional reason for the start of the Industrial Revolution in England?
What is steam locomotive railroads connecting manufacturing towns to seaports an example of?
How transportation impacts industry
What two things motivated people to move to the cities ushering urbanization?
Enclosure and industrialization
Because people moved off their farms and into the cities, urbanization, what did the population of London, England stand at by the year 1850?
Which is an economic system based on industrial production that produced a new middle-class group, the industrial middle class?
Which of the following is a philosophy based on Enlightenment thinking that celebrated individual thinking?
Which of the following is a political philosophy that is based on tradition and social stability by which the main goal is to contain the forces of change?
What arose in the 19th Century out of people's awareness of being a part of being a community with common institutions, language, traditions, and customs?
Which Italian states were key to the national unification of Italy?
Who used effective propaganda for the unification of Italy and was a member of "Young Italy"?
Who provoked an Austrian invasion and by defeating them solidified the unification of the northern Italian States?
Count Camillodi Cavour
The Crimean War was the result of a struggle between ___ and ___
Russia and Ottoman
Which state earned its independence about the same time the Ottoman Empire began to decline?
The two candidates to lead German unification were Prussia and Austria. What was a major difference between the two?
Prussia was homogeneous and Austria was multi-ethnic
What was the "Seven Weeks War" between Prussia and Austria a dispute over?
Schleswig and Holstein border
What did Prussia organize the northern German states into under otto von bismarck?
After which event did the southern german kingdoms join Prussia?
What type of rule brought a Colonial government from the mother country to replace local elites?
What type of rule is when a colonial government maintains the status and authority of local rulers?
Which factor was behind Great Britain founding the colony of Singapore as a stopping point for steamships to and from China for trade?
What economic event shortened travel time between Europe and Asia?
The Suez Canal opened
Which of the following is not a motive of Imperialism?
Which of the following is not a European advantage in regards to Imperialism?
Better food supply
What event divided the continent of Africa into colonial holdings of European nations?
The Berlin Conference
Why did the Boer War create a poor image for the British at home and in foreign countries?
The Boers were placed in concentration camps
What is the name given to the part of the world where one will find countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand?
The Pacific Rim
What event was led by a group of peasants who wanted to rid China of all foreign influence?
The Boxer Rebellion
Which area of society was not effected by Western influence in Japan?
Which of the following is one reason for decolonization?