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Mahatma Gandhi

he led a campaign of nonviolent resistance to win india's freedom from british colonial rule. he believed that one should resist injustice even if it meant going to jail or enduring violence. for example, he led a march to protest british laws which forbade indians from extracting their own salt from seawater. during the salt march, tens of thousands of peaceful protestors were arrested or beaten. but they refused to give in. he inspired king with his methods.

Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).


policy that did not favor either the united states or the soviet union during the cold war

pan Africanism

Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.

Kwame Nkrumah

founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first priesident

Organization of African Unity

organization of independent nations of Africa formed in 1963 to support independence movements and economic cooperation and to promote peace

Jomo Kenyatta

A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya


allegiance to a particular tribe or ethnic group rather than to a nation state. Tribalism is often blamed for conflicts within sub saharan states.


a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites

African National Congress

An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality

Nelson Mandela

South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)

Desmond Tutu

This man was the leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society

F.W. de Klerk

the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa. Known for engineering the end of apartheid

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

Ngo Dinh Diem

Vietnamese leader gained controll of S. Vietnam- refused to hold elections to keep from communism

Khmer Rouge

Communist Guerillas who, led by Pol Pot, took over Cambodia and unleashed a reign of terror

Pol Pot

Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's

Aung San Suu Kyi

(1945-) Burmese political leader; she won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 for her efforts to promote democracy in the country of Myanmar (Burma).

Partition of India

India was separated into 2 countries Pakistan for Muslims and India for Hindus

Caste System

A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life


Tensions between the two major ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu, exploded into violence. In 1994 an estimated 200,000 or more people, mainly Tutsi, had died in massacres. An estimated 2 million Tutsi and Hutu fled to refugee camps in neighboring Zaire and other countries.


Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes

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