Unit 10: The Muslim World and Africa
Terms in this set (148)
a nomadic Arab of the Arabian, Syrian, or northern African deserts
one of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina in 622
the most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
a city in western Saudi Arabia; birthplace of Muhammad, viewed by Muslims as the prophet of Islam, and the most holy city for Islamic people
the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca, on the site of ancient Yathrib, from which Muhammad spread Islam
a building that is used for Muslim religious services
(c.570-632) introduced the religion of Islam to southwestern Asia. According to Muslim belief, Muhammad heard the voice of the angel Gabriel instructing him to serve as a messenger for God. Muhammad spent the rest of his life spreading Islam. Muslims today honor Muhammad as God's final prophet.
the holy book of Islam
body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
ancient city in western Saudi Arabia where Muhammad fled in 622, now modern Medina
How did the hijra influence the development of Islam?
During the hijra, Muhammad created rules that governed and united Muslims.
How did people react at first to Muhammad's efforts to spread Islam?
Not many people listened, and his opposition to Arab gods greatly angered some.
Where on a map of Saudi Arabia are Mecca and Medina?
To the West near the Red Sea
Why is Mecca significant to Islam?
1. Muhammad was born there
2. the Kaaba is located there.
According to Islamic faith, why is Muhammad known as "the prophet"?
He was called on by the angel Gabriel to share the teachings of God.
How did Khadija respond to Muhammad's spiritual mission?
1. She told him to follow his calling
2. she became the first convert to Islam.
Which obligations are among the Five Pillars of Islam?
1. declaration of faith
2. fasting during holy month
3. giving charity
4. Fast during the month of Ramadan
5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Describe the overall teaching of Islam.
Each person is responsible for his or her own actions.
What purpose does Sharia serve?
It applies tenets of Islamic faith to law.
How did the position of women change in early Muslim society?
They gained the ability to inherit property.
dynasty that ruled in Baghdad from 750-1258
(573-634) served as a close friend and advisor to the prophet Muhammad. As Muhammad's son-in-law, he was appointed by Muhammad to succeed him as the leader of the Islamic community from 632-634, making him the first caliph.
(c. 780-c. 850) was a Muslim mathematician who developed groundbreaking concepts related to the study of algebra, and introduced the term "algebra," or "al-jabr." Through his writings, he introduced Europeans to the study of this branch of mathematics. Working in the field of geography as well, al-Khwarizmi also supervised the production of one of the earliest maps of the world.
city in central Iraq that served as the capital of the Abbasid empire
important Muslim political and religious leader
artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering
(c. 940-1020) was a Muslim poet most famous for the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, which he wrote in Persian using Arabic script. Firdawsi wrote at a time when Persia, or Iran, was fairly free from the control of the Muslim empire and local leaders encouraged a flowering of Persian culture. The famed poet centered his writing on the stories of royalty and heroes, and many of the themes he introduced are still relevant today.
(1332-1406) was an Arab thinker who helped establish the principles of many branches of knowledge, including history and economics. He is perhaps best known for the development of standards for studying and writing about history, which he explained in his landmark book, the Muqaddimah. He also introduced or refined many economic concepts relating to labor, profits, use of resources, production, and supply and demand.
(1128-1198) was a philosopher and scientist who lived in Córdoba and influenced European thought. As a philosopher, he placed a variety of subject matter under the scrutiny of reason and analysis and argued that humans were partially, but not completely, controlled by fate. In the field of science, Ibn Rushdi contributed to the study of diseases.
(980-1037) was a Persian physician who wrote the Canon on Medicine, which focused on past medical practices throughout the known world as well as his own procedures. This work features descriptions of anatomy, symptoms of diseases, and medicines and cures. Ibn Sina wrote on a variety of other topics as well, including philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy.
a tall, thin tower of a mosque with a balcony from which the people are called to prayer
(865-925) was a renowned Muslim physician who pioneered the study of many diseases. In addition to a well-received book on measles and smallpox, he also wrote texts about the history of medicine and ways to advance the field. Al-Razi held the position of chief physician, first in the city of Rayy and then in Baghdad. Also a philosopher, al-Razi analyzed the works of Plato while presenting his own ideas.
(1048-1131) is best known today as a poet who crafted many rubáiyáts, or quatrains. In his day, he was praised for his expertise in many areas. As a mathematician, he contributed to the development of algebra. As an astronomer, he carefully studied the sky to help improve the Muslim calendar. The Persian scholar also examined issues related to law, philosophy, and history.
a member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendants of Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law, Ali, are the true Muslim leaders
the ability of individuals or groups to move up the social scale
a member of a Muslim group of people who tries to experience God directly, especially by praying and meditating
a member of one of the largest Muslim sects; believes that inspiration came from the example of Muhammad as recorded by his early followers
Sunni dynasty of caliphs that ruled from 661-750
Describe the spread of Islam under the first four caliphs.
Arabs united under Islam and defeated nearby empires.
Which factors helped the Umayyad empire grow?
1. weakened Persian and Byzantine rule
2. effective fighting methods.
Which of the following is true of the Umayyads?
They expanded into Spain.
Which changes occurred during the rule of Abbasids?
1. Persian traditions strongly affected the caliphate 2. Non-Arab Muslims were allowed to hold powerful positions.
How did the diffusion of Muslim ideas in medicine affect Europeans?
It introduced them to a wide body of medical knowledge and the idea of training physicians and creating hospitals.
What is an important theme in Arab poetry throughout the centuries?
chivalry and the romance of nomadic life
Which adjective best describes Islam?
According to Islamic belief, who is the most recent prophet and the founder of Islam?
Which of the following are the two holiest cities in Islam?
Muslims fast in memory of which event during the holy month of Ramadan?
Muhammad's first revelations from God
How do the Quran and Sharia differ?
The Quran is the holy book of Islam;
Sharia is a system of laws.
Which condition helped the Umayyads build a large Arab empire?
the unifying force of Islam
Which adjective best describes the Islamic caliphate under the Abbasids compared to the caliphate under the Umayyads?
The Muslim taboo against idolatry encouraged the mastery of which art form in Islamic culture?
Muslim scholars launched the study of which field?
Which of the following best describes medicine of the Islamic caliphate?
It was highly innovative and professional.
Which people conquered the Byzantine empire and built a powerful Islamic empire in its place?
How did the Ottoman and Safavid empires differ?
The Ottomans followed Sunni Islam, and the Safavids followed Shiite Islam.
Which listing correctly ranks the classes of Ottoman society from the top down?
men of the sword, men of the pen, men of negotiation, men of husbandry
How did Isfahan become important under Shah Abbas?
He built it into a center for art and for the silk trade.
How did the arts grow under Suleiman?
Ottoman poets used Persian and Arab models to create Turkish poems.
Which geographic feature limited expansion of civilization in North Africa?
Which African linguistic group migrated south and east from West Africa, giving rise to new civilizations?
Which of the following was the main method by which Islam spread to North Africa?
through Arab conquest
How did change over time to the Sahara affect human migration and settlement?
The Sahara's increasing dryness and spreading desert made relocation necessary.
How did the Nubian kingdom of Meroë become a dominant economic center?
It controlled the major trade routes through North Africa.
Which trade goods helped give rise to the West African empires of Mali and Ghana? Select all that apply.
How did the geography of the East African coast give rise to prosperous city-states?
Its location gave it access to important trade routes.
Which statement best describes the overall impact of Muslim merchants on the city of Kumbi Saleh?
Muslim merchants and traders made the city a bustling center for commerce.
Where was the demand greatest for salt that North African traders supplied?
in tropical and savanna Africa
How did Judaism influence Ethiopia's culture?
Some Ethiopians observed some Jewish holidays and dietary laws.
Which aspect of West African culture did the colors and patterns of kente cloth signify?
What was one purpose of the masks people wore during religious ceremonies of African cultures?
to connect with the spiritual forces of the ancestors
What aspect of Roman civilization allowed Christianity to spread in North Africa?
its military prowess
How did histories reflect African civilization?
by describing the words and actions of African ancestors and past events
Which of the following describe the roles of children in African civilizations? Select all that apply.
workers for the family and connections of past with future
city in western Iran that served as an important urban center for the Seljuk Turk and Safavid dynasties
name commonly used for the capital of the Ottoman empire; the city has also been called Constantinople (starting from when it was the center of the eastern Roman empire) and Byzantium (when it was the capital of the Byzantine empire)
a soldier of an elite corps of Turkish troops organized in the fourteenth century and abolished in 1826
a member of a Turkish-speaking nomadic people who migrated from Central Asia into northwestern Asia Minor
dynasty that ruled Iran from 1794-1925
Shiite Muslim dynasty that ruled much of present-day Iran from the 1500s into the 1700s
a king of Iran in past times
Shah Abbas the Great
(1571-1629) was the shah of the Safavid dynasty from 1588 until his death. He drove Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persia and sponsored a golden age of Persian arts and achievement.
(1494-1566) was a sultan of the Ottoman empire who ruled from 1520-1566. During this time, he brought bureaucracy and stability to the empire and advanced the arts, law, and architecture. His military campaigns greatly expanded the scope of the empire.
capital city of Iran, first established as the capital of the Qajar dynasty
Which innovation helped both the Ottoman and the Safavid empires rise to power?
Why did conquering Constantinople strengthen the Ottoman empire?
It gave the Ottomans a trading center and a governmental and cultural capital.
How did the Ottomans manage non-Muslim peoples that they conquered?
organized them into millets
How did the Ottomans interact with the Christian families that they conquered in the Balkans?
They trained sons as Muslim soldiers, and they took daughters as slaves.
How did Suleiman govern the Ottoman empire?
He was a strong ruler who governed with a grand vizier and a council.
How did the Safavid government resemble that of the Ottomans?
1. centralized power
2. relied on a strong military
root language of West Africa on which some early African migration patterns are based
a large waterfall
process by which fertile or semi-desert land becomes desert
ancient city of the Kingdom of Kush
ancient kingdom of northeastern Africa, also called Kush
(c. 800 B.C.-c. 719 B.C.) ruled as the king of Kush in what is now Sudan from about 740 B.C.-719 B.C.
largest desert in the world, covering almost all of North Africa
grassy plain with irregular pattern of rainfall
(c. 145-211) ruled as Roman emperor from 193-211.
What was one of the significant aspects of Muslim domination of North Africa's cities in the 690s?
Muslims made Arabic the region's dominant language.
How did the Muslim caliphates affect early North African civilizations?
They set up an effective trade network linked to India and China.
How did the prosperity of West Africa's smaller societies compare with Africa's much larger kingdoms?
As in the larger kingdoms, farming and trading were key to prosperity.
Why did Bantu-speakers migrate south instead of north?
Desertification created a barrier to the North.
What influence did Egypt have on Nubian society?
Nubian society absorbed some aspects of Egyptian culture.
Which parts of a map of Africa would you shade to show the best farmland?
1. Nile River Valley
2. northern coast
3. southern tip
a valuable product
early West African trading kingdom located in parts of present-day Mauritania and Mali
medieval West African trading empire located in present-day Mali
(died c. 1337) was a devoted Islamic ruler of Mali who came to the throne in 1312 and expanded Mali's borders to the Atlantic Ocean. He was one of the richest men of his era. His famous journey to Mecca was lavish and awakened the world to the riches of Mali.
medieval West African kingdom located in present-day Mali, Niger, and Nigeria
a West African ruler who was responsible for laying the groundwork for Mali to be a rich and powerful kingdom. He died in 1255.
an amount that is more than needed; excess
Which geographic feature limited the expansion of West African civilization?
How did camels help increase trade across geographic barriers of northern Africa?
They carried heavier loads and traveled far without water.
How was Sonni Ali able to create such a wealthy kingdom?
He brought trade routes under Songhai's control, allowing the kingdom to flourish.
How did Arab Muslims primarily interact with East African city-states?
How did trade affect the culture of East African city-states?
Trade attracted people from many regions to the city-states, bringing more cultural diffusion.
What was one of the effects of Mansa Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca?
He forged new diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim states.
a general agreement about something
any of a class of musician-entertainers of western Africa whose performances include tribal histories and genealogies
a group claiming a common ancestor
kinship ties that are passed on through the mother's side of the family
the part of a family that includes only the father, mother, and children
kinship ties that are passed on through the father's side of the family
Which tradition, common among African peoples, primed them to accept Christianity and Islam?
faith in one supreme but unknowable god
How did Islam affect the development of African civilization?
1. African leaders applied the zakat tax to their people. 2. Muslims chosen as advisors by West African rulers received an education.
What purpose did African griots serve?
orally preserved history and folk tales
In addition to family lineages, which other social system defined individuals' roles in many traditional African societies?
Which role did women play in both African settled farming societies and in herding societies?
grew food in fields and gardens
Which element of African culture did the crafting of masks reflect?
the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
a Bantu language widely used as a common language in East Africa and having official status in several countries.
Essay: Be able to describe the growth and spread of Islam.
1. Muslims were unified
2. The Message of Islam
3. The splendors of Baghdad
4. The treatment of conquered people
5. Empire of Caliphs
6. The First Caliph
8. Harshness of Persia and the Byzantines
How did the unification of Muslims help Islam spread?
It gave people a common goal and motivation to come together to fight for making Islam stronger
How did the message of Islam help Islam spread?
It made lower class non-muslims want to convert to Islam in hope for a better life, such as equality, one of the many messages Islam gives.
How did the splendors of Baghdad help the message of Islam spread?
Many people were attracted to Baghdad making the exchange of Islamic ideas rapid and more widespread
How did the treatment of conquered people help Islam spread?
People wanted to always be treated nicely, like Islam offered, so they welcomed Islam and converted rather than fighting against it
How did the Empire of Caliphs help Islam spread?
Many different dynasties had different ideas and leaders of different fields which helped Islam conquer and advertise their religion easily and more efficiently
How did the first Caliph help Islam spread?
helped unify Islam and give people hope. This unification and motivation helped Muslims not get into civil war but instead come together
How did military help Islam spread?
gained lots of land exposing non-Muslims to Islamic culture encouraging them to convert
How did the harshness of the Byzantine and Persian Empires help Islam spread?
Islam was welcomed into areas under these empire's because people didn't like the oppressive rule
Essay: Be able to describe the development of East African civilizations.
In Africa, trade of food, gold, and salt developed into a trans-Saharan trade network, and rulers created powerful kingdoms.
Christianity and Islam spread to many regions of Africa, and people who adopted those religions often blended them with their local practices and beliefs.
What geographic barriers hindered movement in Africa?
The deserts and the tropical rain, the lack of good natural harbors, the high plateaus, rivers containing lots of rapids and cataracts all hindered movement in Africa.
Describe two examples of migration in Africa?
• The desertification of the Sahara caused migration around 2500 BC.
• Between 100 BC and AD 1000, the Bantu or West African peoples like farmers and herders migrated to the south and the east.
How did Nubia prosper?
Nubia had iron ore, Nubia conquered Egypt, and Nubia had wide trade network- gold, ivory, animal skins, perfumes, slaves- which all contributed to make Nubia prosper.
Describe one way the growth of the Roman empire influenced North Africa?
Roman's built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across North Africa. Rome took soldiers from North Africa as well. Rome spread Christianity in North Africa