National Military Strategy
Signed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. provides guidance for distributing and applying military power to attain national strategic objectives.
The document approved by the Secretary of Defense for applying the Armed Forces of the United States in coordination with Department of Defense agencies and other instruments of national power to achieve national security strategy objectives is known as the
Defense Strategic Guidance
The President of the United States provides guidance for developing, applying, and coordinating the instruments of national power to achieve objectives that contribute to national security in the
National Security Strategy
____ is a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population(s). It favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capacities, in order to erode an adversary's power, influence, and will.
The ability of the United States to achieve its national strategic objectives is dependent on the effectiveness of the U.S. Government in employing the instruments of national power, which are
Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic
The statutory members of the National Security Council are ____.
President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and Secretary of Energy.
The ____ is the President's principal forum for considering national security policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.
National Security Council.
The operational chain of command runs directly from the President to the Secretary of Defense and then to ____.
The Combatant Commanders.
The ____ outranks all other officers of the Armed Forces, but may not exercise military command over any of the Armed Forces. He is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the SECDEF.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff .
The non-operational chain of command runs directly from the President to the Secretary of Defense and then to ____.
The Secretaries of the Military Departments and then to the Service Chiefs.
The term joint force commander refers exclusively to the following three (3) types of commanders:
combatant commander, subordinate unified commander, and joint task force commander.
A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is called a
Joint force air component commander, joint force land component commander, and joint force maritime component commander are all examples of
functional component commands
These commands are established by combatant commanders when authorized by the SECDEF through the CJCS to conduct operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the criteria set forth for unified commands.
subordinate unified commands
____ is a joint force that is constituted and so designated by the SECDEF, a combatant commander, a subordinate unified commander, or an existing JTF commander to accomplish missions with specific, limited objectives and which do not require overall centralized control of logistics.
joint task force
Combatant Commanders exercise ____ (command authority) over assigned forces. This is the broadest command authority and may NOT be delegated or transferred.
Combatant Command (COCOM).
Command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed direction and control of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned is known as ____.
Tactical Control (TACON).
The command authority established by a superior commander between subordinate commanders when one organization should aid, protect, complement, or sustain another force is called ____.
____ is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. It includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command.
Operational Control (OPCON).
The _______ is the principal forum to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security and for coordinating these policies among various government agencies.
National Security Council
_______ are responsible for coordinating with U.S. ambassadors in their AOR across the range of military operations.
Geographic combatant commanders
The _______ is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The National Security Council is comprised of the following three levels of formal interagency committees for coordinating and making decisions on national security issues.
Principals, Deputies, and Interagency Policy.
The ______ acts as the honest "broker" among the many USG agencies to broker disagreements and achieve consensus among agencies on national security issues.
National Security Advisor
Within the NSC, the purpose of the ______ is to maintain the day-to-day interagency cooperation; manage the development and implementation of national security policies by multiple agencies; provide policy analysis for consideration by senior committees; and, ensure timely responses to Presidential decisions.
Interagency Policy Committees
Which of the following options represent the Statutory Advisors of the National Security Council?
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Director of National Intelligence.
Successful interagency coordination is a force multiplier that contributes to the achievement of a combatant commander's mission by _________________.
all of the responses
The concept of ______ highlights the synergistic application of all the instruments of national power and includes the actions of non-military organizations as well as military forces.
DOS assigns a ______ to combatant commanders and, increasingly, to JTF commanders, to provide foreign policy perspectives and to establish linkages with U.S. embassies in the AOR or JOA and with DOS.
Political Advisor (POLAD).
U.S. military forces are authorized under certain conditions to provide assistance to U.S. civil authorities for disasters, catastrophes, infrastructure protection, and other emergencies, and this assistance is known as ______ within the defense community because the assistance will always be in support of a lead federal agency.
The supported combatant commander is responsible for developing ______, which covers Interagency Coordination, for each Operation Plan (OPLAN). This enables interagency planners to more rigorously plan their efforts in concert with the military, to suggest other activities or partners that could contribute to the operation, and to better determine any support requirements they may have.
It is imperative that the combatant commander or JTF commander coordinate closely with the ______ on military activities in a particular country because, while not authorized to command military forces, he or she can deny military actions.
The ______ is an interagency staff group that establishes or enhances regular, timely, and collaborative working relationships between other government agencies (e.g., CIA, DOS, FBI) representatives and military operational planners at the combatant commands.
The Country Team provides for rapid interagency consultation and action on recommendations from the field and DOD is normally represented on the Country Team by the ______ and the
defense attache, security assistance organization
______ are independent, diverse, flexible, grassroots-focused, primary relief providers that are frequently on the scene before the U.S. military and will most likely remain long after military forces have departed.
In most situations, IGOs and NGOs need the following military capabilities.
logistics, communications, and security.
The JTF commander facilitates unified action and gains a greater understanding of the roles of IGOs and NGOs and how they influence mission accomplishment by establishing a ______.
Civil-Military Operations Center (CMOC).
The JTF commander should carefully consider where to locate the CMOC. Which of the following are valid considerations in determining the location?
all of the responses are correct.
The JTF commander cannot dictate cooperation among OGAs, IGOs, and NGOs. In the absence of a formal command structure, JTFs are required to build consensus to achieve ______.
unity of effort.
The interagency support provided by a ______, composed of intelligence experts from DIA, CIA, NSA, NGA, and other intelligence agencies, affords the JTF access to national-level databases and to agency-unique information and analysis.
National Intelligence Support Team (NIST).
By virtue of their familiarity in a foreign country or region, ______ are a valuable source of information for a JTF commander who may have neither access to nor current information about the affected country or region.
IGOs and NGOs
A particular type of operation is not doctrinally fixed and could shift within the range of military operations, for example a counterinsurgency operation escalating from a security cooperation activity into a major operation or campaign.
Combatant commanders and subordinate joint force commanders must work with U.S. ambassadors (or diplomatic missions), Department of State, and other agencies to best integrate the military actions with the diplomatic, economic, and informational instruments of national power to promote ________.
unity of effort
The range of military operations includes these three categories of operations: (1) military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence; (2) crisis response and limited contingency operations; and ________.
major operations and campaigns
These operations are typically limited in scope and scale and conducted to achieve a very specific objective in an operational area. They include noncombatant evacuation operations, peace operations, foreign humanitarian assistance, recovery operations, consequence management, strikes, raids, homeland defense, and defense support of civil authorities.
crisis response and limited contingency operations.
Various joint operations such as a show of force or sanctions enforcement support ________ by demonstrating national resolve and willingness to use force when necessary.
The purpose of specifying the ________ is to direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive, and achievable goal.
The purpose of ________ is to concentrate the effects of combat power at the most advantageous place and time to produce decisive results.
The purpose of ________ is to develop and maintain the will necessary to attain the national strategic end state. It is based on the legality, morality, and rightness of the actions undertaken.
Operations designed to demonstrate U.S. resolve, and involve the appearance of a credible military force in an attempt to defuse a situation that, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to U.S. interests are known as ________ operations.
show of force.
Combating terrorism involves actions taken to oppose terrorism from wherever the threat exists, and encompasses ________ —defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts—and ________ —offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism.
________ helps prevent adversary action through the presentation of a credible threat of counteraction. It stems from the belief of a potential aggressor that a credible threat of retaliation exists, the contemplated action cannot succeed, or the costs outweigh any possible gains.
At the strategic level, ________ encompasses those planning activities, such as continuity of operations and continuity of government, undertaken to ensure DOD processes, procedures, and resources are in place to support the President and SECDEF in a designated national security emergency.
The DOD contribution to a unified action effort to support and augment the development of the capacity and capability of foreign security forces and their supporting institutions to facilitate the achievement of specific objectives shared by the USG is called ________.
security force assistance
An operation that employs coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area is known as ________.
enforcement of sanctions
A military operation to temporarily seize an area, usually through forcible entry, in order to secure information, confuse an adversary, capture personnel or equipment, or destroy an objective or capability is called a ________. It ends with a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission.
Military operations that apply military force or threaten its use, normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order are known as ________ operations.
Pursuant to Executive Order 12656, the ________ is responsible for the protection and evacuation of American citizens abroad and for safeguarding their property.
Department of State
In foreign humanitarian assistance operations, commanders usually establish a ________ because it is critical to working with the participating intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
civil-military operations center (CMOC).
Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, recover, and return isolated personnel, sensitive equipment, items critical to national security, or human remains are known as ________.
An operation that employs coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area is known as ________.
enforcement of sanctions
Joint force commanders strive to isolate enemies by denying them ________. The intent is to strip away as much enemy support or freedom of action as possible, while limiting the enemy's potential for horizontal or vertical escalation.
allies and sanctuary
Preplanned, deterrence-oriented actions carefully tailored to bring an issue to early resolution without armed conflict are known as ________.
flexible deterrent options
Joint force commanders must integrate and synchronize offensive, defensive, and stability operations that comprise major operations and campaigns. Planning for stability operations should begin ________.
when joint operation planning is initiated
Although ________ may be the stronger force posture, it is the ________ that is normally decisive in combat. Therefore, commanders will normally seek to transition to the decisive operations at the earliest opportunity.
A joint military operation conducted either as a major operation or a part of a larger campaign to seize and hold a military lodgment in the face of armed opposition for the continuous landing of forces is called ________. These operations may include amphibious, airborne, and air assault operations, or any combination thereof.
The ultimate measure of success in peace building is ________. Therefore, joint force commanders seek a clear understanding of the national and coalition strategic end state and how military operations support that end state.
political, not military
Major operation and campaign plans must feature a(n) ________ offensive, defensive, and stability operations in all phases.
appropriate balance between
The responsibility to plan and coordinate U.S. government efforts in stabilization and reconstruction has been assigned to ________.
Department of State
The two types of joint operation planning are ________. They differ primarily in the amount of available planning time and products.
deliberate planning and crisis action planning.
Planning in an adaptive planning environment using APEX supports the systematic, on-demand, creation and revision of executable plans, with up-to-date options, as circumstances require. A premium is placed on _______.
Planning activities associated with joint military operations by combatant commanders and their subordinate joint force commanders in response to contingencies and crises are known as ________. It includes planning for the mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization of joint forces.
joint operation planning
With respect to strategic planning documents, the SECDEF provides overarching guidance for planning in the ________ and supplementary Strategic Guidance Statements (SGS) for top priority plans.
Guidance for Employment of the Force (GEF).
In Deliberate Planning, the strategic planning documents include all of the following except ________.
Guidance for Deployment of the Force (GDF).
Those headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in joint operation planning or committed to a joint operation are collectively termed the ________.
Joint Planning and Execution Community
APEX activities span many organizational levels, but the focus is on the interaction between ________, which ultimately helps the President and SECDEF decide when, where, and how to commit U.S. military forces.
SECDEF and CCDRs
The operational activity of ________ does not apply to Deliberate Planning, but the other two do.
This is a complete and detailed joint plan containing a full description of the CONOPS, all annexes applicable to the plan, and a TPFDD.
Operation Plan (OPLAN
The primary product of the Plan Development function is an approved ________.
campaign or contingency plan
Deliberate Planning is normally initiated by a tasking in the ________. It is based on assigned planning guidance, derived assumptions, and apportioned forces.
Guidance for Employment of the Force, or JSCP
The seven steps of the ________ follow the sequence of the general problem solving process. It is used for both deliberate planning and crisis action planning.
joint operation planning process
Deliberate Planning encompasses the preparation of plans for non-crisis situations. It is used to develop ________ for a broad range of activities based on requirements identified in the GEF, JSCP, or other planning directive.
campaign plans and contingency plans
Deliberate Planning features a series of periodic ________ that constitute a disciplined dialogue among strategic leaders, specifically the combatant commanders
Contingency plans are best understood as ________ to the overarching global or theater campaign plan.
After a contingency plan is approved in deliberate planning. These supporting plans are normally reviewed and approved by the ________.
Supported Combatant Commander
The mission is the task or set of tasks, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason for doing so.
The ________, JSCP, and related Strategic Guidance Statements (for top priority plans) serve as the primary guidance to begin Deliberate Planning.
Guidance for Employment of the Force
The ________ is an orderly, analytical planning process, which consists of a set of seven (7) logical steps to examine a mission;
Joint Operation Planning Process
Assumptions must be continually reviewed to ensure validity. A valid assumption has three characteristics: ________.
logical, realistic, and essential for the planning to continue
The process of war gaming provides a means for the commander and staff to analyze friendly COAs by comparing them against anticipated adversary COAs
A common, proven technique during COA Comparison is the decision matrix, which uses evaluation criteria to assess the effectiveness of each COA.
Operations conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to achieve military, diplomatic, informational, and/or economic objectives employing military capabilities for which there is no broad conventional force requirement are known as ________.
Elite, highly trained military units that conduct operations that typically exceed the capabilities of conventional forces are known as ________.
special operations forces
Special operations are a integral part of the geographic combatant commander´s theater campaign plan.
Special operations must complement not compete with nor be a substitute for - conventional operations.
Special Operations involve the use of small units of specially trained personnel using specialized tactics and equipment to achieve ________ objectives.
strategic or operational
Short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments
Special operations forces are organized under the ________, a functional combatant command
United States Special Operations Command
Actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance
After the attacks of 9/11, U.S. Special Operations Command assumed an operational role in leading the DOD effort in ________.
global operations against terrorist networks
Most special operations forces are ________ oriented. This allows them to maintain a cultural awareness and a language capability for their assigned areas.
A broad spectrum of military and paramilitary operations, normally of long duration, predominantly conducted through, with, or by indigenous or surrogate forces
Military-political considerations frequently cast Special Operations into clandestine or covert environments; therefore, their activities normally involve oversight at the ________ level.
The Army Special Forces A-Team is capable of conducting operations in remote and hostile areas for extended periods of time; however, it has minimal ________.
anti-armor or other heavy weapons
The unique unit that provides support to special operations forces personnel on a worldwide basis with specially equipped helicopters is the ________.
160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment
The units that support military commanders by working with civil authorities and civilian populations in the area of operations are known as ________.
The units manned by Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen who operate and maintain state-of-the-art surface craft to conduct coastal patrol and interdiction and support special operations missions are known as ________.
Special Boat Teams
The 193rd Special Operations Wing of the Pennsylvania Air National Guard provides the only ________ platform in the Department of Defense with the EC-130 Commando Solo.
airborne psychological operations
The Air Force´s Battlefield Airmen or ________ Teams frequently operate with Navy SEALs, Army Rangers, and Special Forces in direct action, airfield seizure, and personnel recovery missions in hostile territory.
Each geographic combatant command has a ________ to plan and control joint special operations forces in their areas of responsibility.
Theater Special Operations Command
When required, the joint task force commander may establish a ______, which is a temporary joint special operations forces command formed to conduct special operations in a specific joint operations area.
Joint Special Operations Task Force
Which one of the following is NOT a limitation of special operations forces?
Have little to no language or regional expertise
Special Operations Forces are a valuable asset for the joint planner; however, they comprise only a small part of the total force - a little over ________ percent of the total force.
In joint SOF mission planning, a demanding full-up, real-time ________ can mitigate much of the inherent risks of many SOF missions. It is key to the success of complex joint SOF missions.
A traumatically induced structural injury and/or physiological disruption of brain function as a result of an external force defines a ________.
Traumatic Brain Injury
Receiving realistic training, understanding the types of situations encountered in war, eating well, getting enough rest, and having meaningful relationships and friendships are all helpful in building ________.
A state of well-being in which one is aware of personal abilities and limits, copes well with life stresses, works productively and effectively, and contributes positively to his or her communities is known as ________.
Exposure to stressful situations, trauma, and combat will cause a response and resulting change. These responses and changes will all be negative.
Symptoms of ________ include depression, difficulties in social or family life, substance abuse, problems of memory and cognition, and other physical and mental health problems.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
While its missions might include forcible entry operations and peace enforcement, humanitarian assistance is not within the Marine Corps' purview.
Marine Corps forces exploit the Total Force concept, employing combinations of active duty and reserve Marines to ensure that missions are effectively and efficiently executed.
Aerospace Forces produce synergistic effects that are designed not to exceed separately employed individual forces
The US Army's adaptation to new technologies was a result of the federal government
nurturing the arms industry after the Revolutionary War, spurred by Eli Whitney's invention
of interchangeable parts which made standardized gun design possible.
Established in 1798, the US Navy and Marine Corps was created to protect American interests overseas and support maritime free trade.
It was Lt. Col. Earl H. "Pete" Ellis's post-WWI Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia, 1921 document that gave birth to the Marine Corps' amphibious doctrine.
By 1986, the MPS program had in place 13 ships: one squadron in the Eastern Atlantic, a second squadron at Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean, and a third at Guam in the Western Pacific.
The comprehensive doctrine of air warfare supported the conclusion that high-altitude, daylight bombing of an enemy's war-supporting industries and transportation systems could win a war.