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WHAP Unit 1-2 Review Master
Terms in this set (64)
Alexander the Great
Famous general who created large land empire. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history's most successful military commanders. Taught by Aristotle. Helped to spread Greek culture throughout the known world in the process known as Hellenism.
Practice of worshipping ancestors in China. Ties into Confucianism and the concept of "xiao", extreme devotion/duty to family. Think of Mulan!
A Roman innovation that was a conduit, either elevated or underground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it.
Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire on his Rock and Pillar edicts.
Name given to a series of Roman emperors, many of whom were generals, who ruled for short periods before being assassinated or removed from office. In a 100 year period, there were approximately 40 rulers. Led to political instability.
Creator of major Indian & Asian religion; born in 6th century B.C.E. as son of local ruler among Aryan tribes located near Himalayas; became an ascetic; found enlightenment under bo tree; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all earthy things.
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; practiced Eastern (or Greek) Orthodox Christianity; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople (later becomes Istanbul under Ottomans).
Usually used to describe the rigid social order that's embedded within Hinduism in India. No social mobility. Can describe your place within that order.
Chinese philosopher (551-479 B.C.E.), also known by his Chinese name, Kong Fuzi. His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials. Believed in education, filial piety, the five relationships, and a strict social order.
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of Western Asia.
Chinese school of thought, originating in the Waring States Period with Laozi. It offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Its followers believe that the world is always changing and is devoid or absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid fertile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or "path" of nature.
Famous Persian king from the classical period who advocated for tolerant rule and built up systems and infrastructure in Persia.
Mutual defense grouping used by the poleis of Greece to help defeat the Persians.
System of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.
Epic of Gilgamesh
The first piece of "epic" (long and developed) literature written in early civilization in Mesopotamia/Sumeria.
A crescent-shaped area of fertile land in the Middle East that extends from the eastern Mediterranean coast through the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the Persian Gulf. It was the center of the Neolithic development of agriculture (from 7000 BCE), and the cradle of the Assyrian, Sumerian, and Babylonian civilizations
Describes people who sustain themselves with food foraged from their surroundings: nuts, berries, roots, plants, etc. Often combined with Hunting/Gathering, since most groups did a combo of both.
Golden Age of Greece
Time of great intellectual, scientific, mathematical, architectural brilliance in Greece as a results of quelling outside threats and creating stability.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle formed the basis of modern western philosophical thought. Keen observation and reason lead to greater truth.
Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin in 202 B.C.E.; used for next 400 years; collapsed in early 3rd century 3 B.C.E. Re-embraced Confucianism, civil service exam system, scholar bureacrats, invented paper, silk, etc.
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
The twin capitals of the early civilizations that form in India along the banks for the Indus river. Not much knows. Much of the archaeological evidence has been washed away and/or buried.
The process of the spread of Greek culture and civilizational patterns. Largely associated with the empire that Alexander created. Although Macedonian, he was considered Greek.
"Holy Scripts". The Egyptian form of pictographs/writing that wasn't unlocked completely until the discovery of the so called Rosetta stone in 1790s
A religion and way of life popular in India; based on the teachings of ancient sages and scriptures like the Vedas and Upanishads.
Group in southwestern Asia noted for their war like tendencies and use of war chariots, compound bows, etc.
These are sublevels within the major caste levels in India. These are added over time to accommodate the growth in India and rise of new occupations, etc.
(in Hinduism and Buddhism) The sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences.
Roman slave plantations. Up to 1/3 of the Roman population was made up of slaves at one point in the Empire period. Spartacus was a famous slave who revolted. Great example of an internal social issue that led to collapse for Rome.
Ten Commandments, Hammurabi's Code, Twelve Tables of Rome, Justinian's Code ... they all reflect the need to standardize conduct and set up laws for dealing with those break the norms/laws that are meant to govern society.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. Practiced most noteably during the Qin Dynasty
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source.
Literally "between the rivers"; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris & Euphrates river valleys.
The spiritual goal of Hinduism. Happens when you break samsara.
Belief in a single divine entity. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god, and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam.
Ritual preservation of bodies in ancient Egypt. Highly scientific approach. Ties into their highly developed concept of the afterlife.
The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
The major river in Egypt that provided the water for the agriculture that led to their early civilization. Unlike many of the other rivers in the ancient world, the flooding of Nile was highly predictable, leading to better results agriculturally.
Ancient Chinese mystics would write script on large bones, like the scapula of an Ox, then toss in fires to see if, when the bone was removed, they could read significance in the cracks and warps created in the bone/script. Early attempt at religion of sorts.
Patricians & Plebes
The two social classes in classical Rome. made up of those were upper class, often noble, while everyone else was lumped together.
"Roman Peace". Name given to the Roman "golden age" during the empire phase around the first and second centuries C.E. Also, in general, a great time of peace across the empire.
The war between the two poleis, Athens and Sparta. Spartans win after decades of fighting, but both are so weakened that the Golden Age of Greece ends and they open themselves up to attack from the Macdeonians to the North.
The fabled city of the Persian empire. Burned to the ground by Alexander.
Series of wars instigated by Persia to topple the wealthy Greek Poleis. Persians lose in the end.
Developed the first alphabetic script that was hugely simplified from cuneiform. Letters and sounds coordinated (phonetic).
The Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Classical periods.
A Persian water invention made up of a gently sloping underground channel or tunnel constructed to lead water from the interior of a hill to a village below.
Established in 221 B.C.E. at the end of the Warring states period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; fell in 207 B.C.E.; founded by Qin Shi Huangdi. Noted for its use of Legalism as a governing philosophy. Harsh critics of Confucianism (burned books ... buried scholars alive)
Representative form of government that existed in Rome from c. 510 to 47 B.C.E., before the rise of Caesar; featured an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates, and several popular magistrates.
Style of architecture that relies on arches and ribbing to create buildings with free standing domes.
Romulus and Remus
Roman creation myth, if you will. The two brothers were raised by a she wolf. One killed the other in a fight. The winner founded the city of Rome.
The Persians developed this, staffed it with couriers, and were able to use this to link the reaches of the empire. It was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius. Darius built it to facilitate rapid communication throughout. Mounted couriers could travel 1677 miles (2699 km) in seven days;
Hindu concept of reincarnation (birth, death, new life). Goal of Hinduism is to evolve to the point where you break this cycle and attain Moksha
A Persian province governed by a satrap. Came about as a result of the need to administer a large empire.
The most famous of the trading routes established by the pastoral nomads cone connecting the Chinese, India, Persian, & Mediterranean civilizations; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations.
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state.
Terra Cotta Warriors
A collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210-209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.
Sumerian invention that greatly aided transport, trade, etc. Particularly when used with domesticated animals
Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
Life giving rivers of the Fertile Crescent
Literally translates as "color". It refers to the main layers of the Indian, Hindu influenced caste system.
Famous Persian king from the classical period who was very intolerant and got Persia enmeshed in the Persian Wars in Greece.
The major river in China that was the site of early civilization and attempts at agriculture farming cereal crop of rice.
Yellow Turban Revolts
A peasant revolt in China against the Han dynasty. The uprising broke out in the year 184 during the reign of Emperor Ling. It took 21 years until the uprising was suppressed in the year 205. The rebellion contributed to the collapse of the Han
Monumental architecture in Mesopotamia and Sumeria. Stepped pyramids that served as temples and granaries.
A religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.
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