8th grade Science Final Exam Review-2013-USE THIS-DFC

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Terms in this set (70)
intrusionthe forcing of molten rock into fissures or between strata of an earlier rock formationextrusionan igneous rock layer formed when lava flows onto Earth's surface and hardensindex fossila fossil known to have lived in a particular geologic age that can be used to date the rock layer in which it is foundradioactive decaythe process in which a radioactive isotope tends to break down into a stable isotope of the same element or another element.half-lifethe length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decayeraa major division of geological timeperiodunit of time into which eras are subdividedconvectionthe transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluidlithospherethe solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantlesurface tensionthe tightness across the surface of water that is caused by the polar molecules pulling on one anothercapillary actionThe combined force of attraction among water molecules and with the molecules of surrounding materials, which causes water to rise upspecific heatthe heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigradetributarya branch that flows into the main streameutrophicationrapid growth of algae in bodies of water, due to high levels of nitrogen and often phosphaterechargenew water that enters the aquifer from the surfacegroundwaterwater that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layerspermeableallowing (especially liquids) to pass or diffuse throughwatershedthe land area that supplies water to a river systemsaturatedfilled to capacityrunoffwater that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the groundmeandera curve in a streamAQUIFERan underground layer of rock that stores waterARTESIAN WELLA WELL IN WHICH GROUNDWATER RISES BECAUSE OF PRESSURE IS CALLED A/AN:CONTINENTAL GLACIERSGLACIERS THAT ARE FOUND ONLY IN ANTARCTICA & GREENLAND AND SPREAD OVER LARGE AREAS OF LAND ARE CALLED:CLIMATEthe average weather conditions in an area over a long period of timeCORIOLIS EFFECTThe way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.ALPINE GLACIERA glacier confined to a valleyCURRENTA STREAM OF ELECTRICITY (OR ELECTRONS) THROUGH A CONDUCTOR, OR FAST MOVING STREAM OF WATER IN AN OCEANDEEP OCEAN CURRENTSconvection currents that flow far beneath the surface of the ocean. they are caused by temperature differences in the water, and the earth's rotationDECAY RATESThe rate at which a radioactive isotope disintegrates until a final non-radioactive isotope is formed.DEPOSITIONthe natural process of laying down a deposit of somethingEL NINOa warm ocean current that flows along the equator from the date line and south off the coast of Ecuador at Christmas timeEROSIONthe process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to anotherFLOODPLAINan area along a river that forms from sediments deposited when the river overflows its banksIMPERMEABLEcharacteristic of materials through which water does not easily pass, such as clay and graniteGLACIERa slowly moving mass of iceHEADWATERSthe place where a river beginsHYDROGEOLOGYthe branch of geology concerned with water occurring underground or on the surface of the earthICEBERGa huge block of floating ice broken from a glacier, found in the most northerly and southerly areas of the world's oceansINDEX FOSSILa fossil known to have lived in a particular geologic age that can be used to date the rock layer in which it is foundIRRIGATIONthe process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing cropsKETTLE LAKEa bowl-shaped depression that was formed by a block of ice from a glacier and then became filled with waterMOLECULEthe smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substanceMORAINEpiles of rocky debris left by melting glaciersNONPOINT SOURCEa widely spread source of pollution that is difficult to link to a specific point of originPESTICIDESChemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contaminationPOINT SOURCEa specific source of pollution that can be identifiedPOLAR MOLECULEa molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric chargesPORESTiny openings in and between particles of rock and soil which may contain air or water. OR MAY BE TINY OPENINGS IN THE SKINRADIOMETRIC DATINGdetermination of absolute ages of rocks and fossils through calculations based on a radioactive isotope's fixed rate of decayRESERVOIRSPlaces where water is collected and stored for useSALINITYthe total amount of dissolved salts in a water sampleSOLVENTsubstance doing the dissolving, the dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.SUBMERSIBLECapable of being put underwater.UPWELLINGThe movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.WATER DENSITYThe ratio of water's mass to its volume; water is the most dense at four degrees CelsiusWATER POLLUTIONthe addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on the waterWATER TABLEthe top of the saturated zone, or depth to the groundwater under Earth's surface.WATER VAPORWater in the form of a gasWETLANDA land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year.