APES Cycle Quiz
Terms in this set (53)
What parts of the biosphere are involved in biogeochemical cycles?
Sunlight and Water
What two things drive all the cycles?
Sunlight and Gravity
What are the five major cycles?
Hydrologic, Carbon, Mineral, Nitrogen, Oxygen
How is the water cycle different from other cycles?
If every living thing on earth would die, the water cycle would continue
What are the three major processes in the hydrologic cycle?
Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation
What additional type of evaporation do plants carry out?
Once water reaches the earth's surface, what two paths may it take?
Surface Water or Ground Water
Where does most water vapor in the air come from?
What is required for condensation to become precipitation?
What substances may form nuclei for condensation to collect around?
Dust, soot from fires, vehicle exhaust, etc.
How much of our fresh water supply is tied up in glaciers?
Why is water considered the major force that changes the earth's surface?
Water is the primary agent in breaking down rock, and it also allows dissolving and moving of other substances
How is water purified in the hydrologic cycle?
When plants transpire, minerals such as salt are left behind.
What is an aquifer?
Large underground rocks that holds water
What two major problems are caused by using large quantities of fresh water?
Causing rivers to run dry and exhausting underground aquifers faster than they can recharge
What four environmental effects are caused by turning natural ecosystems into urban environments?
Increase runoff, create warm spots in the atmosphere, more rain in cities (change in rainfall patterns), and decrease carbon dioxide in the air
What is the effect of global warming on the water cycle?
Global warming increases evaporation rate and melts glaciers
What percentage of gas in the air is carbon dioxide?
What processes add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere?
What process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
What effect does adding or removing carbon dioxide from the air have on the climate?
An increase of carbon dioxide will cause an increase in temperature
Fossil fuels are all largely composed of what element?
What is the origin of fossil fuels?
Fossil fuels were created by the heat and pressure that decomposed plants and animals for millions of years in the earth's crust
Why are they considered nonrenewable?
Once they are used, they can't be reused.
What two functions does the ocean have in the carbon cycle?
The ocean takes in massive amounts of carbon, and the ocean has organisms that transform that carbon into other things which allows the ocean to take in more carbon
How does limestone form in the ocean?
From sediment being put into the ocean
What is meant by the greenhouse effect?
The process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere
What two human activities have enhanced Earth's greenhouse effect?
Burning Fossil Fuels and Deforestation
What is this change in the greenhouse effect called?
What planet has a run-away greenhouse effect?
What is the atmosphere's most abundant element?
What natural compounds contain nitrogen?
Proteins and DNA
What natural process changes atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen monoxide?
What is meant by nitrogen fixation?
Nitrogen is turned into ammonia
What organisms carry out nitrogen fixation?
Where are cyanobacteria found?
Underneath the top layer of soil
Why are legumes important in nitrogen fixation?
They provide spaces for the cyanobacteria called nodules
Give the function of these specific bacteria in the nitrogen cycle: nitrifying bacteria
Change ammonium ions into nitrates
Give the function of these specific bacteria in the nitrogen cycle: nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Turn nitrogen into ammonia
Give the function of these specific bacteria in the nitrogen cycle: denitrifying bacteria
Turns nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen
Give the function of these specific bacteria in the nitrogen cycle: decay bacteria (Ammonifying bacteria)
Turns nitrogen into ammonium
What form of nitrogen can plants use?
Which bacteria only live in anaerobic environments? (swamps, etc.)
How does nitrogen form acid rain?
When gasses unite with water and form nitric acid
How do we add nitrates to aquatic ecosystems?
Fertilizer or animal waste
How is nitrogen removed from topsoil?
Why does the phosphorus cycle not involve the air?
It is a sedimentary cycle, meaning that it only involves rocks and water
Where does most phosphorus accumulate?
What is the original source of the phosphorus?
What is the source of phosphorus in fertilizers?
Ocean Deposits or harvesting guano
Where is the earth's sulfur stored?
Underground in rocks and minerals
Where does sulfuric acid form naturally? What is the major gas that is used to form it?
What is the major source of sulfur added to the atmosphere by human activities?
The generation of power by coal or natural gases