Concepts & Investigations Ch. 2 The Chemistry of Life (2.1-2.4)
2.1 Atoms Make Up All Matter 2.2 Chemical Bonds Link 2.3 Water is Essential to Life 2.4 Organisms Balance Acids & Bases
Terms in this set (30)
a pure substance that cannot be broken down; smallest component of a substance
smallest particle of an element
Subatomic particle that carries a negative charge, much smaller than Protons and Neutrons.
Contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by electrons
Subatomic particles that are uncharged.
Subatomic particle that carries positive charge.
number of protons
The average mass of all isotopes of an element.
an atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost electrons and has given it a -/+ charge.
bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion; formation of compounds
sharing of electrons; creates molecules
non-polar covalent bond
electrons shared equally O=O
polar covalent bond
unequally share electrons O-H-H
connection of water molecules by hydrogen bonds (two polar molecules attracted)
water loving molecule; must be ionic and polar covalent
water fearing molecule; must be nonpolar covalent bonds
has more H+ and less OH- (battery acid, soda)
has less H+ and more OH- (bleach, baking soda)
carbon based structure
building blocks of polymers (ex: sugars)
"macromolecules" made of monomers (ex: carbohydrates)
glycerol (sugar) + 3 fatty acids
structural, protective, regulatory, contractile, transports molecules; specific to build/breaking down enzymes
building block of protein; have an amino group based around a nitrogen, carboxyl group based around carbon/oxygen, and an R group (side group; body requires all 20 of them)
sequence of amino acids that make up a protein; form covalent bonds
localized folding; sheets of hydrogen bonds
overall 3D shape; functional form
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose (hydrogen + 2 nucleotides) sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins. A-T and G-C
polymer made of nucleotide monomers; made of sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose (Oxygen/Hydrogen + 2 nucleotides)