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Terms in this set (148)
What is health?
the physical and mental well being of an individual... can change throughout the day depending on an individual's environment
• Having a common pattern of communication, sound system or language
• Similarities in dietary preferences
• Common pattern of dress
• Predictable relationship and socialization patterns among members
• Common set of shared values and beliefs
in this class you cannot blame the victim, why?
because all people are different
"the sense of IDENTITY based on COMMON ancestry and national, religious, tribal or cultural origins"
Ethnicity provides.... but can be used to ....
provides a sense of belonging and can be used to stereotype
what two words do we often talk about that can be used interchangeably?
race and ethnicity
race is a "biological term" used to describe
ethnic groups on the basis of physical characteristics
health care reformers are reframing the term "race" to...
multicultural, ethnic or multiculturally diverse may promote sensitivity when working with diverse populations
what is health care?
The prevention of illness and injury through the delivery of services that improve health, status of living, and life expectancy
who is the largest promoter of health care
what are the four different types of health care?
what is HMO stand for?
Health Maintenance Organization
what does PPO stand for?
Preferred Provider Organization
"A health care system that assumes or shares both the financial risks and the delivery risks associated with providing comprehensive medical services to a voluntarily enrolled population in a particular geographic area, usually in return for a fixed, prepaid fee."
HMO health maintenance organization
"A type of medical plan where coverage is provided to participants through a network of selected health care providers (such as hospitals and physicians). "
PPO preferred provider organization
"The enrollees may go outside the network, but they would pay a greater percentage of the cost of coverage than write within the network. "
PPO preferred provider organization
"A nationwide health insurance program providing health insurance protection to people 65 years of age and over, people entitled to social security disability payments for 2 years or more, and people with end-stage renal disease, regardless of income."
"Each state establishes its own eligibility standards; determines the type, amount, duration, and scope of services; sets the rate of payment services; and administers its own program."
higher but lower payment
"A jointly funded cooperative venture between the Federal and State government to "assist States" in the provision of adequate medical care to eligible needy persons"
what are some examples of HMO?
baylor scott and white, two types of risk?
what is the "end result of this class"?
what is ethnosensitivity?
becoming more sensitive and respectful of cross-cultural differences
what are the seven stages of the ethnosensitivity model?
-fear or mistrust
-denial of cultural differences
-feelings of superiority
-minimization of cultural differences
describe the stage "fear or mistrust"
-Fear of knowing something is wrong, mistrust getting a mammogram and them not apologizing or telling you it will hurt
describe the stage of "denial of cultural differences"
denial differences that ppl bring to the table
name that stage:
"they don't know anything and deny what people who are informed know about"
minimization of cultural differences
name that stage:
"You only select certain points of the culture and make it relative to you that benefit you"
describe the empathy stage
having some level of empathy but cont let it take over
describe the cultural integration stage
why is it different among everyone?
"a system that has evolved from spiritualstic, homeopathic, Aztec, Spanish, and other western scientific foundations"
curanderismo, "a set of traditional beliefs, rituals, and practices that address the physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs of the people who use it."
"Physical appearance due to particular historical social and political forces"
race, focuses on physical characteristics
"the state of complete mental, physical, and social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease of infirmity"
"Comfort, well-being, and the distinction between physical and mental health difers in social classes, cultures, and religious groups"
"seen as a resource for everyday life, no the object of living"
"shared cultural identity with distinct behavioral characteristics"
ethnicity, focuses on common cultural traits
race and ethnicity are ____ categories
"membership to a nation or sovereign state"
what are the three things nationality is determined by?
-place of residency
-sense of national identity
Health Care Disparities are the differences in presences of
-access to care
within a population
Health Disparities are the differences in... (4)
o Burden of disease
within a population
inequality in health refers to the differences in both
between countries, regions, states and socioeconomic groups
INEQUITY in health is the...
systematic, unfair, or unjust, yet potentially avoidable differences in access to HEALTH SERVICES across defined population groups
when was the Plessy V Ferguson ?
when was the W.E.B. DuBois ?
what provided empirical evidence: to discount "climate" and to recognize economic poverty inferior education, segregation and racism were social determinates that shaped the health status of Blacks?
The Phillidelphia (newspaper) Negro?
what did Booker T washington establish?
link between economic progress of Blacks and premature death from disease
what happened in 1915? a week..
Negro Health Improvement Week
what year was adopted as a year round program by the U.S Public Health Service?
what happened in 1932?
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 40 years
in 1951, due to integration, what was decommissioned?
the office of Negro Health Works
who was margarett heckler?
Secretary of the US department health and humans services
what happened in 1985 dealing with secretaries?
Secretarys Task Force Report on Black and Minority Health
What did the Secretaries Task Force Report on Black and Minority Health?
Report documented "excess" deaths from seven disease conditions experienced by blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian and or pacific islander and Alaskan native population
the officr of minority health (OMH) was established in
when did they centers of disease control create an office of minority health?
when did the NIH establish an office of minority health?
what amendment came about in 1863
The Emancipation Proclamation
the 13th amendment states... and came about when?
1865 13th amendment outlawed slavery in the U.S. and all territories
which amendment gave citizenship to all persons orn in the US or naturalized?
14th amendment, 1868
which amendment came about in 1870?
15th amendment male voting rights
when was the civil rights
when was the voting rights act
what did the 19th amendment do and when?
1920 19th amendment females granted right to vote
when thinking about historical trends, life expectancy, and mortality rates there are a complex web of factors like
describe directive 15
1977 Race and Ethnic standards for federal statistics and administrative reporting
why should we study minority health?
the economic impact of health disparities on society
what is physiognomy?
a person's facial features or expression, especially when regarded as indicative of character or ethnic origin.
race and ethnicity are _____ derived constructs NOT _____
SOCIALLY not BIOLOGICALLY
race and ethnicity, by theirselves are not useful in
describing and/or explaining critical aspects of health, use rationally
define infant mortality rate
Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1,000 live births
define neonatal mortality rate
number of deaths during the first 28 completed days of life per 1000 live births in a given year or other period
define post neonatal mortality rate
rate of newborns dying between 28 and 364 days of age...
In spite of ____
- Increase risk low birth weight
- Increase risk of neonatal mortality
- Increase risk of dying before they reach their first birthday
what are some aspects that are need in order to decrease baby mortality rates?
• Healthy ppl to procreate
• Clean and safe places to live
• Access to quality health care
• Safe place to deliver babies
• Safe place to raise a new born
• Nutrition/Food (income)
• Knowledge related to personal health and infant health
"Number of deaths in a population at a given time"
"Number of ill individuals amount a group or people at risk"
"Number of infant deaths among infants 0-365 days at a given period of time divided by the population size at midpoint times of multiplier (generally 100)"
"Number of infant deaths among infants 0-28 days at a given period of time divided by the population size at midpoint times of multiplier (generally 100)"
Specific Rates VS Adjusted Rates
Adjusted: Statistical procedures applied to make crude rates more comparable
what is mortality crossover?
Mortality rates that illustrate two groups of individuals vary in one way for younger versus older individuals
what is comparative mortality?
Age adjusted and specific mortality rates can be compared more accurately
which type of mortality is when rates can not be compared
acute VS chronic
short VS long
"number of live births at a given time"
how do you calculate birth rate
Divide the # of live births in selected time by the population size at midpoint of a selected time period
what does YPLL stand for
years of potential life lost
what is YPLL
the number of years that are lost due to UNTIMELY death
Years of Potential Life Lost is based upon ___ but does not include____
based upon average life expectancy and does not include quality of life in calculation
what are your sources of data when it comes to mortality and morbidity?
-surveillance (direct and indirect)
how can data be misleading, incorrect, incomplete when it comes to mortality and morbidity and YPLL?
where do health beliefs come from? five different categories
"national state and local laws"
"relationships among organizations"
"organizations and social institutions"
"family, friends, social networks"
"own knowledge, attitudes, skills"
Many health behaviors are shaped (developed) and then occur for reasons other than health like
culture and contexts
what shapes our attitudes?
cultural traditions and beliefs
what shapes our behavior?
attitudes and contexts
health behaviors are _____ ___ motivated by health
what are is the difference in smoking rates among women in developed countries vs under developed
9% in developing or under
what are the four types of prevention?
"fighting the disease and/or health conditions when signs/symptoms present to minimize complications"
"avoidance of over-treatment"
"strategies to avoid diseases like vaccinations"
"early diagnosis and treatment of existing disease and/or health condition in order to avoid further debilitative effects"
give some examples of secondary prevention
-screenings (self breast exams and pap smears)
goal is to catch early to avoid advancement
"medication therapy adherance and changing diet/exercise regimen"
what are illness behaviors?
Behaviors people engage in with the aim of relieving effects of illness
-Seeing a therapist for psychological symptoms; taking pain-killer for arthritis pain
Illness behaviors are closest to which type of prevention
illness behaviors are strongly linked to socio-demographic factors like...
o Social class/income
o Family structure
Illness behaviors in regard to gender?
utilization of medical services are higher in woman then men
illness behaviors in regards to social class/income
utilization of medical services is greater among higher SES than lower
Illness behaviors in regards to race/ethnicity
Utilization of medical services lower among Hispanics and blacks compared to white and Asains
"behaviors which are associated with increased risk/susceptibillity to adverse health consequences (illness or injury)"
define risk behaviors
Any behaviors that puts an individual at risk for negative consequences
health behaviors vary by
other socio-demographic factors
evidenced by inequitities in health outcomes related to health behaviors
behaviors are strongly determined by...
context, socio-ecological model
there is a thin line between
helpful and harmful
effective strategies towards health consider
what two determinants of health explain SOME of the racial disparities we see in infant mortality but NOT all
social and behavioral
the difference in prenatal care utilization and maerna behaviors is genetic?
combination of biology and environment
Infant Mortality Rate (IMRs) are proxy for
accounts for biology and environment interactions
disparities WITHIN a country/nation indicated
-some measurable (insurance and education)
-some not (effects of racism)
what are health behaviors?
an action taken by a person to MAINTAIN, ATTAIN, OR REGAIN goof health and to prevent illness
exercise is an example of
change is an example of
chemo is an example of
health behaviors reflects a persons health beleifs both
implicit: putting on a seatbelt, you internally know what is right and wrong
explicit: smoking drinking
what are the two types of health behaviors?
"preventive behavior, illness behavior"
health enhancing, health benefits to the person practicing the behavior
"having harmful effects on health of the person engaging in the behavior"
health impairing, risk behaviors
health is a resource for life not
objective for living
"physical appearance due to social and political forces" (or historical forces)
-shared cultural identity with distinct behavioral characteristics
-focus on cultural traits
race and ethnicity are both
social not biological
"difference in incidence, prevalence, mortality and burden of a diseases in a population"
what are health care disparities?
differences in illness, health outcomes, or access to health within a population
health care disparities VS health disparities
outcome VS numbers
"differences in health experience and health status between countries, religions, states and socioeconomic groups"
"systematic, unfair, unjust yet potentially avoidable difference in access to health services across defined population groups"
determinants of health represent factors which
directly cause illness and disease or are risk factors that affect health of a population, community, or individual
determinants of health include
-physical environmental factors
-access to health
"number of deaths within a population"
what is crude mortality
total number of deaths within a population in a time period
define life expectancy
average number of healthy productive years left at you particular age
"number of individuals with disease, illness, injury, disability within a population"
what is you socioeconomic status?
-measure of social and economic characteristics
-income, poverty level, wealth, education, work status, residence
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