50 terms

Global Regents Exam Review with pictures

These are the terms that come up most often on the New York State Global Regents Exam. Created by Mr. Jacobs at Newark Valley High School.
primary sources
• eyewitness accounts
• often biased
• get different points of view by checking many
• study artifacts, which are objects made by humans
• study how people use goods and resources
• study how land forms, water, location, and climate (weather) affect people
political scientists
• study government (including citizenship, rights, policies, and elections)
Scientific Revolution
• reason, observation, experimentation
• Copernicus, Galileo, Newton
• heliocentric model (sun-centered system)
• challenged traditional beliefs and the Catholic Church
• led to the Enlightenment
• based on the Scientific Revolution
• used reason
• John Locke
• natural rights:life, liberty, property
• consent of the governed (democracy)
• challenged traditional beliefs and the Catholic Church
• led to revolutions
Latin American independence leaders
• Toussaint L'Ouverture, Simón Bolívar, and José de San Martín
• creating a country or pride in a country
• Zionism: Jewish movement to create Israel
• "Blood and Iron" Bismarck unified Germany
• Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi unified Italy
natural resources: iron & coal
• why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain
• migration to cities (often for factory jobs)
• leads to overcrowding problems
Irish Potato Famine
• starvation in Ireland that led to migration
laissez-faire capitalism
• government stays out of economics
• free market and competition
• supply and demand determine prices
Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto
• called for proletariat (workers) revolution to overthrow bourgeoisie capitalists (owners)
Berlin Conference
• led to European colonization of Africa
Sepoy Mutiny, Boxer Rebellion, Zulu Resistance
• attempts to remove foreign influence
Treaty of Kanagawa
• Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to open up to USA
• Tokugawa Shogunate fell
Meiji Restoration
• Japan westernized, industrialized, modernized
lack of resources
• reason why Japan pursued a policy of expansion and imperialism
Suez Canal and Panama Canal
• shipping shortcuts
causes of World War One
• militarism
• alliances
• imperialism
• nationalism
• assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Russian Revolution (1917)
• Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks
• promised "Peace, Land, and Bread"
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
• nationalist leader who westernized and modernized Turkey
• democratic and secular government
Mohandas Gandhi
• nationalist who led Indian independence movement
• nonviolence
• civil disobedience
• boycotts
• Salt March
Joseph Stalin's five-year plans
• attempts to increase Soviet industrial and agricultural output
• collectivization
• forced famine in the Ukraine
• government control
• censorship and propaganda
• extreme nationalism and loyalty to a dictator
• economic instability (Great Depression) helped Mussolini and Hitler rise to power
League of Nations failed to prevent World War Two
• USA and others not members
• no military force
blitzkrieg (Hitler's lightning warfare)
• flat terrain of Northern European Plain helped
Napoleon and Hitler
• both were defeated in Russia partly by winter climate
Iron Curtain
• separated communist Soviet satellites of Eastern Europe from capitalist democracies of Western Europe
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine
• USA policies to contain communism
NATO (North American Free Trade Organization)
• western military alliance against the Soviet Union
supported by peasants
• Mao Zedong's Communist Revolution in China
• Fidel Castro's Communist Revolution in Cuba
• Ho Chi Minh's Communist Revolution in Vietnam
Great Leap Forward
• Mao Zedong's attempt to build China's industrial and agricultural output
Four Modernizations
• Deng Xiaoping's attempt to build China's industrial and agricultural output
• more economic freedom: capitalism
perestroika and glasnost
• Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms of the Soviet Union
• introduced capitalism and free speech
• led to the breakup of the Soviet Union
India and Pakistan
• split because of religious differences between Hindus and Muslims
Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah
• leaders of independence movements in Africa
• policy of racial segregation (separation) in South Africa
• Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu fought against it
• F.W. de Klerk ended it
Shah Reza Pahlavi
• tried to westernize and modernize Iran
Iranian Revolution
• led to fundamentalist Islamist theocracy (government by religious leaders)
human rights violations
• massacres & genocides
• examples include the Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda and the Armenian massacre in the Ottoman Empire
Aung San Suu Kyi
• led rights and liberties movement to end oppression in Southeast Asia
• deserts expanding due to overuse (over farming & overgrazing)
Green Revolution
• increased agricultural production thanks to new technology
nuclear proliferation
• India, Pakistan, North Korea have atomic weapons and Iran is close
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) and EU (European Union)
• increased trade and interdependence
oil (petroleum)
• Middle East has it
• OPEC controls it
Arab Spring
• protests against governments and calls for reforms in Islamic countries