History Final Review Vocab

Long definitions
King Leopold
The king of Belgium; He obtained the Congo and exploited it brutally under a humanitarian pretense; Once this brutality was revealed he relinquished the control to Belgium
Berlin Act
Signed at the Berlin conference in 1885. Protected free trade, banned slavery, protected the welfare of the native people.
Slavery/ Rubber
important to all imperialists of Africa, these were two of the things that drove the Scramble.
Rwandan Genocide
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Triple Alliance
The World War I alliance between Germany, Italy (at first), Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
Trench Warfare
a type of warfare in which huge trenches are built which are faught out of and lived in.
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Central Powers
named so because of their location in the middle of Europe; the alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary
Treaty of Versailles
a compromise between the major Aliies (US, France, G.B.) and Germany. It was signed 6/28/1919. it called for a League of Nations and punished Germany
League of Nations
an international association whose goal it would be to keep peace among nations, so another world war would not happen
an agreement to stop fighting, in this case signed by Marshal Foch and a German representative (because the Kaiser had stepped down). Signed 11/11/1918
Schlieffen Plan
the plan that General Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen (Germany) created that the German army would first have an easy victory in France and then an easy victory in Russia
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
the policy that Germans created that they would torpedo any passing boat with their U-Boats
an aspect of total war in which governments decide that people can only buy so-much of something so that there is enough for the war effort
Big Four
Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and VIttorio Orlando
Joseph Stalin
a totalitarian dictator who executed millions in the great purge and his 5-year plans attempted to get the economy back.
Great Purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
in czarist Russia, attacks on jews carried out by government troops or officials
later known as the "red army"- a revolutionary group that wanted to overthrow the government and install communism
Salt March
led by Gandhi, a march to the Indian coast, in which participants gathered water and evaporated it to make salt. a symbol of Indian Independence
a creeeper, he seemed to heal Czarina Alexandra's son, so she let him govern while Nicholas was away
Mao Zedong
the leader of the communist party in China
The Chinese Nationalist Party, formed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. Included the Communists between 1923 and 1930.
Civil Disobedience
a nonviolent protest in which people are deliberately not obeying a rule that the people believe to be unfair.
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) during which he was allied with Hitler
Non-aggression Pact
an agreement between 2 or more nations in which they agree not to attack each other
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII- he was held as a great ruler by the Britons
Douglas MacArthur
commander of Allied forces in the Pacific-a brilliant military strategist who wanted to "island-hop" past Japanese strongholds
a systematic killing of an entire ethnic group or people
Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by crashing bomb-filled planes into them
a reduction in a country's ability to wage war, achieved by disbanding its armed forces and prohibiting it from aquiring weapons
Island Hopping
Douglas MacArthur's plan to seize islands in the Pacific in order to get past Japanese strongholds
Final Solution
The Nazi plan for ridding Europe of it's Jewish population
city neighborhoods- in Holocaust reference, meaning compounds where European Jews were forced to live
United Nations
an international organization intended to keep a third world war from happening, and devoted to keeping its members safe from aggression
a policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism
Marshall Plan
a plan created by the Secretary of State George Marshall that proposed to give aid to any European nation needing aid after the devastation of WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a military alliance made between the US and other countries
the willingness of countries to be on the brink of war- that if an attack occured there would be immediate retaliation
38th Parallel
the line that divided Vietnam into North and South Vietnam- decided at the Geneva Accords
Ngo Dinh Diem
the non-communist leader of South Vietnam- chosen by the US by greatly disliked by the South Vietnamese
The North Vietnam army group led by Ho Chi Minh
Berlin Airlift
Because Berlin was in eastern germany, the Soviet's put a blockade on Berlin and so flights from west Germany dropped supplies onto Berlin every minute
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- part of the detente in which the US and the USSR set a certain number of ICBMs in any given nation. SALT I was successful, but the US refused to ratify SALT II